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Studying Mark's Gospel: Conflict, Mountaintops, Redefinition

Lesson 4

 

Conflict, Mountaintops, Redefinition

 

Mark 3

 

LAST WEEK IN REVIEW

 

Mark recorded four examples of great and defining works of Jesus during the early Galilean ministry, and how this led to conflicts between Jesus and the religious leaders of His day. These religionists had so legalized their Judaism that the actual meaning and heart of the Law of Moses had taken a second place to their traditions. Jesus addressed the heart of our need and the need of our heart to be right with God, not just leaning on external and empty ritual. In each of the four examples, we also learned of four aspects about Jesus. The following chart summarizes what we learned:

 

Passage

Event

Truth about Jesus

 

v. 1–12

Healing the paralyzed man

 

Power to forgive sins as the Son of Man

v. 13–17

Calling of Matthew and fellowshipping with sinners

 

The great Physician who alone has the cure for what ails us

v. 18–22

Jesus’ disciples not fasting

 

Our heavenly Bridegroom for whom we joyfully wait

v. 23–28

Jesus’ disciples picking the corn kernels on the Sabbath

 

The Lord of the Sabbath, and its Creator

 

DAY ONE:  Compassion and Conflict

 

Please carefully read Mark 3:1-6 and answer the following questions.

 

1.  As we mentioned last week, today’s passage is the fifth example of the growing conflict between Jesus and the hypocritical religious leaders that opposed Him. We don’t know specifically when this took place, but what happened, and who else sought to be around Jesus on the Sabbath (v. 1, 2)?

 

NOTE:  The Greek word for Sabbath here is plural, Sabbaths, so it seems that they were spying on Jesus on a number of occasions, or watching him closely as the niv put it. This is confirmed when we consider that the verb watching is in the imperfect tense, which means it was a continuous action of spying on Him.[i]

 

2.  What was Jesus’ reaction to the man’s plight, and how did He address the accusing thoughts of the Pharisees (v. 3, 4)?

 

NOTES:  Although the niv and nlt have Jesus saying, “stand up front,” the Greek phrase means to stand in the middle of everyone. Nowhere in this story did the man ask to be healed, and certainly he could have been healed the next day. But rabbinic law (their own tradition) had so twisted the idea of working on the Sabbath that they said healing was only allowed if a life was actually in danger; the real issue wasn’t even compassion for a man who had suffered for years and had no hope, but for Jesus to further demonstrate the validity of His message and claims.[ii]

 

3.  What was Jesus’ two-fold response to these people? What happened to the man, and what was the Pharisees’ reaction to this (v. 5, 6)?

 

4.  Jesus had three emotional reactions toward this situation. The first was compassion to save this man suffering and ostracism. Jesus’ use of “to save life or to kill” could be expanded “to save from danger, loss, and destruction, or to destroy either physically or morally, to deprive of spiritual life leading eternal misery in hell,” maybe implying there was more at stake for this man than they knew from their limited viewpoint. The second reaction was anger, which in Greek means not an outburst of wrath, but as a state of mind. This is the only place in the Gospels where this word is used to describe Jesus.[iii] It is interesting that Aristotle said that this type of anger “is desire with grief,”[iv] for Jesus’ anger soon turned to grief, which means to be afflicted, grieved for another person, similar to the Greek word for sympathy, to feel pain together with another. These men were on thin ice with Jesus, but we see that He chose to show grief and sorrow over their hardened hearts as He looked right through them, silencing them. 

 

We all experience these types of emotions in our lives. What are some things you learn about them from the following passages?

 

Compassion (Psalms 111:4, Psalms 145:8; Lamentations 3:22-32; 1 Peter 3:8):

Anger (Nehemiah 9:17; Psalms 30:5, Psalms 37:8; Ephesians 4:26-27):

Grief (Isaiah 53:4-6; 2 Corinthians 7:9-11; Ephesians 4:30-32):

 

Scripture Memory:  This week we will be memorizing Mark 3:34-35. Review the passage several times throughout the day each day this week, and by the end of the week, you should have it memorized completely.

 

And He looked around in a circle at those who sat about Him, and said, “Here are My mother and My brothers!  For whoever does the will of God is My brother and My sister and mother.”  Mark 3:34-35 (nkjv)

 

DAY TWO:  Multitudes and Mountaintops

 

Please carefully read Mark 3:7-15 and answer the following questions.

 

1.  In Mark 3:6, the Pharisees went to take council with the Herodians (a group of Jews who were sympathetic to and supported King Herod’s rule) about how they might destroy (Greek, as one would slaughter an animal) Jesus; ordinarily the Pharisees wanted nothing to do with this false ruler over the Jews, but “common enemies make strange bedfellows.”[v] Even stranger to believe is that the Pharisees would later have to collaborate with the Sadducees, with whom they were in complete disagreement (see your Introduction about their conflict), for the Sadducees controlled the Sanhedrin (a sort of Jewish Supreme Court), and being collaborators with Rome, they alone would have the power to seek an execution of someone.[vi] 

 

This now lead to a shift in Jesus’ Galilean ministry, described by Mark in Mark 3:7-35.[vii] What did Jesus seek to do, but what happened as He did (v. 7, 8)?

 

2.  Jesus sought to withdraw to the Sea of Galilee after all these things. The word withdraw is used only here in Mark, and it isn’t clear whether it meant being forced out of necessity to do so or just take a break.[viii] But then there came a huge crowd (“a great throng, a vast multitude,” amp) not just from Galilee but from cities in the areas south, east, and northwest from there.[ix] What did they have to do in view of this large group, and how did Jesus graciously minister to these people (v. 9-12)?


NOTE:  The fickleness of this mob of people would soon be demonstrated. Mark of course recorded what Jesus did much more than what He said, while the other Gospels demonstrate how Jesus taught these people extensively. This group seemed to have little response to Jesus’ teaching, but focused on what He was able to do for them; it is ironic that the demons recognized Jesus to be the Son of God, but all the multitudes seemed to see is Him as a miracle worker to meet their every whim.[x]

 

3.  Jesus finally found a place to escape the crowds and distractions up on the nearby mountain. Luke 6:12 tells us He spent all night alone in prayer about the monumental task He had to do. What did He do in Luke 6:13-15, and for what three reasons did He select this group of men (you can actually find four if you use the kjv or the nkjv)?

 

4.  These men were quite an unusual bunch, as we’ll discuss tomorrow. Of all those following Jesus, He ordained these twelve men, chosen according to His own will. They came to Him but in no way did He force them to accept this challenge.[xi] How can we gain insight about our calling to follow and serve Jesus, as well as reassurance about that, from the following passages?

 

Zechariah 4:6; John 15:1-16

1 Corinthians 1:26-31

Philippians 1:6, Philippians 2:12-16, Philippians 4:13-19

 

Scripture Memory:  Try to fill in the missing words in the blanks below, by memory if at all possible, and then review the passage several times today.

 

And He looked around in a _________________ at those who sat about Him, and said, “Here are My mother and My brothers!  For whoever does the _____________ of God is My _____________________ and My sister and mother.”  Mark 3:34-35 (nkjv)

 

DAY THREE:  Disciples Are Designated

Please carefully read Mark 3:16-20 and answer the following questions.

 

1.  Jesus selected twelve men to have this special relationship with Him. These were quite a motley crew. No rabbi of Jesus’ day would have chosen such a mixed group—well, maybe except for Judas Iscariot, the only one who showed promise! At the end of this day, examine the chart provided to learn more about these men. Many of these names are nicknames, which were common in Jesus’ day, even to put on tombstones.[xii] Using nicknames for someone shows a sign of closeness and even affection. Jesus referred to them in terms that indicated He saw their potential, not just the rough raw material they were then. What do the following passages tell us about the basis of Jesus’ choice of them, and encourage us about ourselves at the same time?

 

1 Samuel 16:7; Psalms 147:10-11

2 Chronicles 16:9; 2 Corinthians 4:7

Isaiah 55:8-9

 

2.  After this awesome experience in the mountains, like after many a retreat, reality was waiting for them at the bottom of the hill! To what extent did ministering to these people impact Jesus and His men (v. 20)?

 

Mark’s List of the Apostles

How well do you know the Apostles? We find them listed in Matthew, Mark, Luke, and Acts 1:13, Acts 1:26 (adding Judas’ replacement, Matthias). The choosing of twelve men was significant, recalling the twelve tribes of Israel, yet here in the New Covenant that Jesus was establishing.[xiii] The following chart was designed to help us understand the men Jesus chose, what their name or nickname meant or designated, and what we know of their ultimate impact for the One Who called them.[xiv]

 

“Then He appointed twelve, that they might be with Him and that He might send them out to preach,  and to have power to heal sicknesses and to cast out demons” (Mark 3:14-15, nkjv)

 

 

APOSTLE

NICKNAME/MEANING

IMPACT ON THEIR WORLD

Simon Peter

Simon: hearing

Always the first apostle mentioned

 

Peter: a stone, fragment of a rock

Preached the first Gospel sermon

 

 

First apostle to preach to Gentiles

 

 

First apostle to perform a miracle and raise the dead

 

 

Wrote two Epistles

 

 

Mark's Gospel probably is based on his testimony

 

 

Ministered in many areas of the Roman Empire or beyond

 

 

Peter's wife was killed before him, and then he was crucified upside down

 

 

 

James

James: Supplanter

Present with Jesus in the Transfiguration and in the

 

Son of Zebedee: my gift

Garden of Gethsemane

 

Son of Thunder

Highly doubtful tradition that he went to Spain

 

 

First apostle to be martyred, by Herod Agrippa in AD 44

 

 

Left us no written or spoken word

 

 

 

John

John: Jehovah graciously gives

Was a companion of Jesus with Peter and James

 

Brother of James

Cared for Mary after Jesus' death

 

The disciple whom Jesus loved

Leader in the Jerusalem church

 

 

Moved to Ephesus for many years

 

 

Wrote his Gospel, Epistles, Revelation

 

 

Exiled to the Island of Patmos

 

 

Only apostle not to be martyred

 

 

 

Andrew

Andrew: manly

Always introducing others to Jesus

 

 

Possibly ministered in Scythia (Russia) and Greece

 

 

Possibly spent time in Ephesus with John

 

 

Martyred in Greece on an X-shaped cross

 

 

 

Philip

Philip: warrior, lover of horses

Traditions about him unclear

 

 

We never read of him after Pentecost

 

 

Not the same Philip in Acts 6, Acts 8

 

 

Possibly ministered in France (Gaul)

 

 

Probably died in Heiropolis

 

 

 

Bartholomew

Bartholomew: son of Tolmai

Possibly ministered in Asia Minor, then east to India

 

Many believe this was Nathaneal

Believed to have preached in Armenia, working healings

 

 

Traditionally martyred in Armenia

 

 

 

Matthew

Matthew: Gift of Jehovah

Traditions about him are unclear

 

Levi: joined, adhesion

Perhaps went to Ethiopia, Macedonia, Syria, Persia

 

 

Most likely wrote the Gospel of Matthew

 

 

Possibly was beheaded in Egypt

 

 

 

Thomas

Thomas: a twin

His so-called doubting led to some of the greatest revelations of Jesus

 

Didymus: his Greek name

Ministered in Babylon and regions eastward

 

 

Probably ministered in India

 

 

Martyred by being pierced with a lance, possibly as he knelt in prayer

 

 

 

 

 

 

James son

James: Supplanter

Traditions are unclear

of Alpheus

Alpheus: changing

The brother of Matthew; their mother stood at Jesus' cross and His tomb

 

"James the small" or "lesser"

Was possibly a zealot

 

 

Martyred, but unclear when or where as traditions have mixed up him

 

 

and James the Just

 

 

 

Thaddeus

Thaddeus: large hearted, courageous

Perhaps was a zealot

 

Also referred to as Lebbaeus (man of

Traditionally ministered  in Armenia and Persia

 

heart) and Jude (praise)

Martyred in Syria or Persia

 

 

Not the same Jude that wrote the epistle

 

 

 

Simon the

Simon: hearing

Possibly was a zealot

Canaanite

Canaanean is Aramaic for zealot or

Martyred with Jude in Syria or Persia

 

zealous one

Some believe he made it as far west as Britain

 

 

Most likely martyred in Persia, being sawn in two

 

 

 

Judas

Judas: He shall be praised

Some see him as a zealot; his name

Iscariot similar to the word for assassin

Iscariot

Iscariot: men of Kerioth

The infamous betrayer of Jesus

 

 

Committed suicide

 

 

Scripture Memory:  Try to fill in the missing words in the blanks below, by memory if at all possible, and then review the passage several times today.

 

And He looked around in a _________________ at those who __________ about Him, and said, “Here are My __________________ and My brothers!  For whoever does the _____________ of God is My _____________________ and My sister and mother.”                   

                                                                                                   Mark 3:34-35 (nkjv)

 

DAY FOUR:  Family Becomes Foe

Please carefully read Mark 3:21-30 and answer the following questions.

 

1.  Jesus and His men returned from their mountaintop experience to so much need that they ministered continuously, not even having a break to eat. What sad thing do we read at this time of transition for Jesus and the twelve (v. 21)?

 

NOTES:  It is unclear who these were from the Greek phrase alone, which simply means, “those from Him.” Yet by the context these were probably His family members; in other writings of that time the same word was used to describe one’s family.[xv] They thought He must have gone crazy (literally, to stand outside of one’s self, thus be out of one’s mind)[xvi] because of how He had been acting, so they started out to “lay hold of Him” (take power over Him, implying by force). The Amplified Bible clarifies it for us too: “And when those who belonged to Him (His kinsmen) heard it, they went out to take Him by force, for they kept saying, He is out of His mind (beside Himself, deranged)!” (Mark 3:21, amp)

 

2.  How disappointing and frustrating this would have been to Jesus! But Mark’s recording this incident helps us to see the validity of this Gospel, for the church, or any writer most likely, wouldn’t invent a story putting Jesus’ family and He (or the hero of the story) in such a bad situation.[xvii] We too may face such misunderstanding by our friends and family when we come to Christ. What did Jesus later warn His disciples about this (John 15:18-21)? How did Paul also warn how some may respond to our embracing Christ (1 Corinthians 1:18-29)?

 

3. So on one hand, His very friends and/or family thought He was behaving irrationally and was ready for a journey to the funny farm. Even worse, what did the religious leaders say about Him (v. 22)?

 

NOTE:  Beelzebub wasn’t a name recorded in the Old Testament, but appears to have come from the name Baal, “the Lord of the Household.” This was probably a corruption of his name into Beelzebub, “the Lord of the Flies,” or the fly god, or as some translate it, the dung god. Beelzebub is named in Apocryphal literature (The Testament of Solomon), and was considered the head of the demons as another name for Satan used in the days between the Testaments.[xviii] 

 

4.  How did Jesus respond to these false accusations, defeating their arguments soundly (v. 23-27)?

 

5.  What is the wonderful news for all who receive Christ’s forgiveness (v. 28), but the utter folly of rejecting that and thereby blaspheming and deliberately shutting themselves off from that chance that the Spirit testifies to them[xix] (v. 29)?


NOTE:  Assuredly (truly, verily) is the Greek translation of the Hebrew word “amen.”

 

Scripture Memory:  Try to fill in the missing words in the blanks below, by memory if at all possible, and then review the passage several times today.

 

And He ___________________ around in a _________________ at those who __________ about Him, and said, “Here are My __________________ and My brothers!  For whoever does the _____________ of God is My _____________________ and My __________________ and mother.”

                                                                                                Mark 3:34-35 (nkjv)

 

DAY FIVE:  Redefining our Relationships

 

Please carefully read Mark 3:31-35 and answer the following questions.

 

1.  By this time, the entourage of Jesus’ family members had arrived. In what seemingly harmless way did they come (v. 32, 33)?

 

NOTE:  It would be unfair to state that Mary would have been in on trying to take Jesus by force, but accompanied His brothers out of concern for her Son, as any mother would. The others were no doubt concerned about the family’s reputation.[xx] Without getting into the Catholic views of Mary too much, they state that these were probably cousins or step-siblings, as they believe Mary was a perpetual virgin. Yet the Bible is clear that Joseph and Mary had a normal marital life (Matthew 1:25), and Jesus had brothers and sisters who didn’t believe Him until after His resurrection (Mark 6:3; John 7:3-5).

 

2.  In what surprising way did Jesus respond to this (v. 33, 34)?

 

3.  Even more surprisingly, how did He redefine our Kingdom relationships (v. 35)?

 

4.  Those who do the will of God (“not to be conceived as a demand, but as an expression or inclination of pleasure towards that which is liked, that which pleases and creates joy”[xxi]) become part of His family. Of course, Jesus doesn’t mean to ignore or abandon our families, but our love for our Heavenly Father should be so great that our love for family would seem like hate in comparison (Luke 14:26)![xxii] What are some of the things you learn about our Kingdom relationships from the following passages?

 

Romans 8:14-17

1 Peter 1:8-9

1 John 3:1-3

 

Scripture Memory:  Can you write out this week’s passage by memory here below? Give it a try, and keep reviewing the passage several times throughout the day.

Mark 3:34-35:

 

DAY SIX: Following Christ

 

1.  We too are in great need like the man Jesus healed on that particular Sabbath. The religious leaders refused to see their need, but rather plotted to kill Him who not only saved a life, but came to bring us true life![xxiii] You may not have a withered hand, but sin had withered your heart and life until Jesus came and freed you from it, and hopefully from religious hypocrisy. What are some of the things God has forgiven and restored in your life by following Jesus? Are there still some things that you struggle with that might be damaging your walk with Him? Turn to Him today for help and healing. Record some of these things here so you can share with your group how God has done great things for you, or seek their prayer support for the things that you struggle with.


2.  “It was a strange group of men our Lord chose to be His disciples.... There was not a preacher or an expert in scripture in the lot. Yet it was with these men that Jesus established his church and disseminated his Good News to the end of the earth.”[xxiv] We too as the body of Christ are a pretty strange lot. The rich and the poor sing together the same praise to Jesus for all He’s done for them. The high school dropout helps a Ph.D. gain great understanding into God’s Word. A societal reject, a drug addict, the vilest of sinners hold hands and pray along with the successful, those who never have touched drugs or alcohol, the most righteous appearing. God is indeed gracious to take us from what we are and what the world thinks of us to bring us to the point of what we are going to be one day in Him. He sees our potential, not the present or past aspects others find distasteful about us. As you read the following passage, take some time to consider both what you were prior to Christ, and how He can use you as you commit to follow and serve Him.

 

God saved you by his special favor when you believed. And you can't take credit for this; it is a gift from God. Salvation is not a reward for the good things we have done, so none of us can boast about it. For we are God's masterpiece. He has created us anew in Christ Jesus, so that we can do the good things he planned for us long ago.” (Ephesians 2:8-10, nlt)

 

3.  We face three choices to make about who Jesus was and is to us today. We can brand Him as His family did:  a religious nut driven by insanity and self-delusion. We can reject Him as the religious leaders did: claiming He was demonically influenced or just plain lying. Or, we can accept that what He was saying was true, and choose to follow or reject Him. To call Him a liar, we have to pass up the fact that He was the greatest teacher on truth, moral ethics, and unselfish living. To call Him crazy is also crazy, because He had great perception and a clear, sharp intellect, and if Jesus Christ is insane, what does that say about the rest of us?[xxv] The only other option is that He is telling the truth, and is the only way, truth, and life, and is the Lord of Glory. It is up to us to accept or reject it. Ponder these classic words by C.S. Lewis, and record some of the things that led you to see that Jesus is who He claimed to be, and follow Him:

 

I am trying here to prevent anyone saying the really foolish thing that people often say about Him: “I’m ready to accept Jesus as a great moral teacher, but I don’t accept His claim to be God.” That is the one thing we must not say. A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. He would either be a lunatic—on a level with the man who says he is a poached egg—or else he would be the Devil of Hell. You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is, the Son of God: or else a mad man or something worse. You can shut Him up for a fool, you can spit at Him and kill Him as a demon; or you can fall at His feet and call Him Lord and God. But let us not come up with any patronizing nonsense about His being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to.[xxvi]

 

Scripture Memory:  Hopefully you now can write out this week’s passage completely by memory.  Do so now, and keep on reviewing it do you will be ready to share it with others in your group time.

 

Mark 3:34-35

 

 

 


[i] Unless otherwise indicated, Greek word definitions and translations in this lesson are based on A.T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament (Sunday School Board of the Southern Baptist Convention.  In Logos Research Systems, Inc., Bellingham, 1932, 1933, 1997); James Strong, The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible:  Showing Every Word of the Text of the Canonical Books, and Every  Occurrence  of Each Word in Regular Order, Electronic Edition (Woodside Bible Fellowship, Ontario, in Logos Research Systems, Inc., Bellingham, 1996); M.R. Vincent, Word Studies in the New Testament Bellingham:  Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2002); Kenneth S. Wuest, Wuest’s Word Studied in the Greek New Testament; for the English Reader (Grand Rapids:  Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; in Logos Research Systems, Inc., Bellingham, 1984, 1997); and Spiros Zodhiates, The Complete Word Study Dictionary:  New Testament, Electronic Edition (In Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1992, 1993, 2000).

[ii] Larry W. Hurtado, Mark. In W. Ward Gasque ed.., New International Biblical Commentary, New Testament, Vol. 2 (Peabody:  Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, 1983, 1989), p. 51; Walter W. Wessell, Mark.  In Frank E. Gaebelein ed., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, Vol. 8 (Grand Rapids:  Regency Reference Library, 1984), p. 639.

[iii] Roy B. Zuck and Darrell L. Bock, A Biblical Theology of the New Testament (Chicago:  Moody Press, 1994, 1996), p. 71.

[iv] Spiros Zodhiates, The Complete Word Study Dictionary:  New Testament, Electronic Edition (In Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1992, 1993, 2000).

[v] Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, Vol. 1 (Wheaton:  Victor Books,/SP Publications, 1989), p. 119; James A. Brooks, Mark.  In David S. Dockery ed., The New American Commentary, Vol. 23 (Nashville:  Broadman Press, 1991), p. 69.

[vi] Richard L. Niswonger, New Testament History (Grand Rapids:  Zondervan Publishing Co., 1988), p. 63, 64, 169-172.

[vii] Walter W. Wessell, Mark.  In Frank E. Gaebelein ed., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, Vol. 8 (Grand Rapids:  Regency Reference Library, 1984), p. 640.

[viii] Walter W. Wessell, Mark.  In Frank E. Gaebelein ed., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, Vol. 8, p. 641.

[ix] Craig S. Keener, The IVP Bible Background  Commentary:  New Testament (Downer’s Grove:  InterVarsity Press, 1993), p. 243.

[x] Alexander Maclaren, Mark:  The God Who Serves (Old Tappan:  Fleming H. Revell Co., 1987), p. 74, 75; William L. Lane, The Gospel of Mark.  In Gordon D. Fee ed., The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids:  Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1974), p. 129.

[xi] John Phillips, Exploring the Gospel of Mark (Grand Rapids:  Kregel Publications, 2004), p. 74.

[xii] Craig S. Keener, The IVP Bible Background  Commentary:  New Testament, p. 143.

[xiii] James A. Brooks, Mark, p. 71.

[xiv] This chart was developed based on information in the following sources:  Craig A. Evans ed., The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary (Colorado Springs:  Cook Communications Ministries, 2003); H. Wayne House, Chronological and Background Charts of the New Testament (Grand Rapids:  Zondervan, 1981); Herbert Lockyer, All the Men of the Bible (Grand Rapids:  Zondervan, 1958); William S. McBirnie, The Search for the Twelve Apostles (Wheaton:  Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1973); James Strong, The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible:  Showing Every Word of the Text of the Canonical Books, and Every  Occurrence  of Each Word in Regular Order, Electronic Edition; M.R. Vincent, Word Studies in the New Testament; and Spiros Zodhiates, The Complete Word Study Dictionary:  New Testament, Electronic Edition.

[xv] Joel F. Williams, Mark.  In Darrell L. Bock ed., The Bible Knowledge Key Word Study:  The Gospels (Colorado Springs:  Cook Communications Ministries, 2002), p. 124.

[xvi] James A. Brooks, Mark, p. 74. 

[xvii] Walter W. Wessell, Mark, p. 643.

[xviii] For more on this information, see Paul J. Achtemeier ed., Harper’s Bible Dictionary (San Francisco:  Harper and Row, 1985.  In Logos Research Systems, Inc., Bellingham, p. 593; Craig A. Evans ed., The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary, p. 244; Joel F. Williams, Mark, p. 125.

[xix] W.C. Kaiser; P. H. Davids, F.F. Bruce; & M.T. Baruch eds., Hard Sayings of the Bible  (Downer’s Grove:  InterVarsity Press, 1996), p. 416; Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, Vol. 1, p. 122..

[xx] Warren W. Wiersbe, The Bible Exposition Commentary, Vol. 1, p. 74.

[xxi] Spiros Zodhiates, The Complete Word Study Dictionary:  New Testament, Electronic Edition.

[xxii] Warren W. Wiersbe, p. 120, 121.

[xxiii] James A. Brooks, p. 69.

[xxiv] Walter W. Wessell, Mark, p. 643.

[xxv] Josh McDowell, The New Evidence that Demands a Verdict (Nashville:  Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1999), p. 159-162.

[xxvi] C. S. Lewis, as quoted by Josh McDowell, The New Evidence that Demands a Verdict, p. 157.


© 2005 by Harvest Christian Fellowship. All rights reserved. Written by Thomas Klock for Men’s Bible Fellowship, 2005-2006. www.Harvest.org