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Notes

'The Holy Wab,' like each of the two parts of the Pilgrim's Progress, takes the form of one continuous narrative. It falls naturally, however, into seven parts, which may be thus summarised: I. Introductory account of the origin of Mansoul and of the fallen angels, pp. 1-12; II. The taking and debasing of the Town of Mansoul by Diabolus, pp. 12-35; III. The regaining and reconstruction of Mansoul by King Shaddai and Prince Emanuel, pp. 35-164; IV. The trial and execution of the leading Diabolonians, followed by the granting of a new charter to the Town, and by closer relations between Prince Emanuel and the townsmen, pp. 164-207 ; V. Subsequent backsliding and painful recovery of Mansoul, pp. 208-316; VI. Renewed but unsuccessful assault made upon recovered Mansoul by a mixed army of Doubters and Bloodmen, pp. 316-341; VII. Parting admonitions from Prince Emanuel to the people of Mansoul, pp. 341-350.

It lies there in the window. —That is, the key to the Page 6,

line 25.

allegory; the window being, as the side-note explains, 'the margent.' The Holy War is more intricate in character and more psychological than the Pilgrim's Progress; but in its interpretation we have the advantage of the guidance of Bunyan himself. The marginalia which he gave with the first edition of 1682 have been carefully retained in this edition, with the feeling that they form the best and most authoritative exposition of the allegory itself. In the spelling of the word margent, Bunyan is in accordance with other writers of the time. Shakespeare, for example, never uses margin, though in The Tempest he has sea-marge (IV. i. 69). He speaks of 'the beached margent of the sea.'— Midsummer Night's Dream, II. i. 85; 'Writ o' both sides the leaf, margent and all.'—Love's Labour's Lost, V. ii. 8; and Milton also of 'slow Mseander's margent green.,—Comus, 232. So in A Lover,s Complaint, 39—

'Which one by one she in a river threw
Upon whose weeping margent she was set.'

That fierce Alecto.—One of the very few classical allusions

made use of by Bunyan. The Eumenides or Erinnyes,

called by the Romans Furise or Dirse (.Sschylus, Eumenides,

46-56; Virgil, JEneid, vi. 231), were by later writers limited

to these three: Alecto, Tisiphone, and Megjera, all of whom

Bunyan introduces into this allegory. Farther on we read

(p. 16) that 'one Tisiphone, a fury of the Lake,, is appointed

to strike down Captain Resistance; and also that Diabolus

cast up three mounts against Mansoul, calling them Mount

Alecto, Mount Tisiphone, and Mount Megsera, 'for these

are the names of the dreadful Furies of Hell' (p. 262). In

making them lords in the army of Diabolus, and giving them

masculine designations, Bunyan departs from the classical

idea. To this Dante more accurately conforms when in the

Inferno (C. ix. 37-45) he says:

'Standing up were seen
Three Furies, hell-bred and of blood-stained hue,
Who had the limbs of women and their mien.

'And he who knew that they the handmaids were
Of the great Queen of endless misery,
Said to me, "Lo, the fierce Erinnyes there!
Megeera on the left hand meets thine eye,
Alecto there stands wailing on the right,
Tisiphone between."'—Plumptre's Danle, pp. 44, 45.

As familiar as the bird with the Boy.—A proverbial ex- Page 14,

line 29.

pression pointing to a state of primitive simplicity and familiarity. The captive bird had become accustomed to and fearless of the boy, so Mansoul of the dragon.

This went as current down, that is, easily, rapidly. 'Say, Page 16, shall the current of our right run on VKing John, II. i. 335.

'Never came Beformation in a flood
With such a heady currance.'King Henry V., I. i. 34.

Dr. Nicholson considers that currant is, in its specific form,
more active than current, and the substitution of ce for t
makes currance more active than currant.

Then stood forth that He, Mr. Ill-pause.— He was thus Page 20,

c line 1.

sometimes prefixed to proper names by way of emphasis.

'He has showed as much honesty and bravery of spirit as any

he in Mansoul,' p. 271. .

'I'll ,bring mine action on the proudest he
That stops my way in Padua.'—Taming of the Shrew, III. ii. 320.

'Carve on every tree
The fair, the chaste, and unexpressive she.'

As You Like It, III. ii. 10.

'I swear to thee, youth, I am that he, that unfortunate he.'

Ibid. III. ii. 362.

Like to like, quoth the Devil to the Collier, i.e. they were Page 30, * , J line 17.

both black alike. This proverbial expression Bunyan introduces also into his Life and Death of Mr. Bad-man: 'Hang them rogues, there is not a barrel better herring of all the holy brotherhood. Like to like, quoth the devil to the collier, this is your precise crew.' 'Like to like, quoth the Diuell to the Collier, and some will never be satisfied vntill their mouthes be filled with clay.'—The Passionate Morrice, p. 74. 1593.

>'He could transform himself to colour,
As like the devil as a collier,
As like as hypocrites, in show
Are to true saints, or crow to crow.'

Butler's Hudibras, I. ii.

Page 31, With all Civil and Natural Documents, i.e. teachings,

line 16. 6 We use document to mean the substance on which a thought,

teaching, or statement is written; formerly and more natur-
ally it meant the teaching or statement itself. In Latin
documentum (doceo) was a lesson, example, pattern, warning.
So in Elizabethan English. 'Which God graunt may be a
document to all that heare or reade the same to avoyde the
like offence.'—Stubbes,s Anatomy of Abuses (1583), p. 100.
'A document in madness; thoughts and remembrance
fitted !'—Hamlet, V. iv. 'They were forthwith stoned to
death, as a document unto others.'—-Sir W. Raleigh's
History of the World, Bk. V. C. ii. § 3. 'Mr. Conscience
did his utmost to keep all his good documents alive upon
the hearts of the people of Mansoul.'—Holy War, p. 277.

Page 33, Did much more Grammar, and settle the common people. s' To instruct and establish. Grammar has here the rudimentary idea of gramma, a line or letter.

itaf if6' Runagate.—The Mid. English renegat, was thought to mean run-a-gate (gate, a way) = runaway. It really means an apostate or villain. 'A false knight and a renegate.'— Gower's Conf. Am. vi. 2.

'By land and sea, where'er my arms he spies
An ignominious runnagate he flies.'

Rowe, Lucan Pharsalia, Bk. V.

Page *li Nor did the silly Mansoul stick or boggle.—To boggle is to start aside or swerve for fear. Prof. Skeat thinks it may be connected with Prov. Eng. boggle, a ghost. Usually in a bad sense, a boggier being a vicious woman, one who starts from a right path. 'You have been a boggler ever.'— Antony and Cleopatra, III. ii.

I have a Maul.—(Mall, malleus) A large wooden hammer. page 47, 'This consideration was as a Maul on the head of Pride.'— ine 8' Grace Abounding, § 300.

'The woman first with pekois and with tnalles
With great labour beat down the walles.'

Lydgate, Story of Thebes, p. 1, iii.

'And some had malles of lead wherewith they gave such strokes that they beat all doune to the erthe.'

Froissart, Chron. I. C. xlii.

Cap-a-pe.—From head to foot. 'Armed at point exactly, Page 53, cap-a-pe.'Hamlet, I. ii. ine 11

Come to push a Pike, i.e. to push of pike, to close Page 53,

line 20.

quarters.

They mattered no words, i.e. paid no attention. Page 67,

line 24.

Three new Souldiers.—There is much of Bunyan's char- Page 69,

line 27.

acteristic suggestiveness in this passage where Mr. Tradition, Mr. Human-wisdom, and Mr. Man's Invention proffer their service to Shaddai, but are very soon taken prisoners by the other side, and under Captain Anything are ready at once to fight against their former captains; for that as they said, 'they did not so much live by Religion, as by the fates of Fortune.' This Captain Anything, under whom they are placed, is evidently a favourite with Diabolus, who addresses him as 'Anything, my darling.' He is 'a brisk man in a broil; but both sides were against him, because he was true to none.' Readers of the Pilgrim's Progress will remember that Mr. Anything and Mr. Facing-both-ways were among Mr. By-end's rich relations in the town of Fair-speech.

Page 81, Your saucy and malapert language.—Impudent, illbehaved. The true sense of malapert is ill-skilled, ill-bred, inasmuch as the 0. F. apert ( = open) acquired the sense of skilful or well-behaved. Littre cites from Joinville, 'Mai apertement se partirent le Turs de Damiete,, i.e. the Turks departed from Damietta in a very unskilful way. From unskilfulness there was an easy transition of thought to impudence, 'He malapert, he running with your tong.'— Chaucer, Court of Love.

Page 83, Thus the Uckerment went a while, i.e. the conflict, line 24. , ,

skirmishing. A. S. pycan, Dutch pichen, German bichen, to

peck at. 'The conflict or Uckerment of nature and sick

nesse.'—Nomenclator.

Page 94, There were also some from the Court that rode Beformades.

—The Dictionary of the Spanish Academy defines Beformado

as one who applies himself to military service, though not

in actual commission—Emeritus. Subsequently, when

describing the renewed assault upon Mansoul (p. 256),

Bunyan says that several of the Black-den would with

Diabolus ride Beformades to reduce the Town., Thus on

each side angels, fallen or unfallen, are represented as

taking part in the Holy War, in the capacity of volunteers,

impelled thereto not by duty or command, but by personal

interest. 'Those also that rode Beformades, and that came

down to see the battle, they shouted, etc, (p. 128).

'And when he loitered, o'er her shoulder
Chastised the Refomiado soldier.'—Hudibras, II. C. ii.

Page 94, Forty-four Battering Bams and twelve slings.—These are line 25. explained in the margin as meaning the 66 books of the Bible; but as 44 and 12 are only 56, probably twenty-two was written in figures in the MS. and mistaken for 12.

Page 115, Lecturers in Mansoul.—The lecturers in English towns in line 29.

Puritan times were simply preachers, without having any further pastoral charge. Being usually chosen for their preaching power, they were often more acceptable to the people than the ordinary clergy. 'Tenne to one but they will strain themselves to bring him in as a Lecturer which is a thing they reverence farre beyond the Parson of the Parish by many degrees.'—Powell's Tom of all Trades, 1631. Vide also p. 201, line 31.

Now from Ear-gate the street was straight even to the house Page 130, of Mr. Recorder.—A significant touch setting forth theline9' direct contact of the outward word with the inward conscience. Elsewhere (p. 172) he describes Flesh-lane as being right opposite to the Church.

They interpreted the carriages of Emanuel to them.— Page 125,

line 29

Carriage formerly meant that which was carried, not, as now, that which carries. It came thus to be applied to the manner in which one person carried himself, as we say, towards another. 'They thought to drive away his distemper by harsh and surly carriages to him.'—Pilgrim's Progress. In the Grace Abounding also Bunyan speaks of 'Some carriages of the Adversaries of God's Truth with me.' See also Holy War, p. 270.

The Trumpets did sound amain.—All at once, with full Page 127, power. This is a sea term. To strike amain is to let the me 15' top-sails fall at their full run, not gently. 'Her peacocks fly amain.'Tempest, IV. i. 74. 'The enemies, smitten with fear and terror, fled amain.'—2 Maccabees, xii. 22.

He went with a rope about his head.—' I thought also of Page 131,

line 22

Benhadad,s servants who went with ropes upon their Heads to their Enemies for mercy.'—Grace Abounding, § 251.

Pafre 142

They were all of them struck into their dumps. Dumps line 14.'

was not always considered a burlesque expression for sorrow. It was formerly the received term for a melancholy strain of music. In the singular it occurs in the sense of a meditation, and also of an elegy.

Page 147, My Lord Willbe will mounded outright.—Swooned; d is line 10. frequently inserted after an n, as 'thunder,, from Old English thunor, gender from Fr. genre. But here it seems to be radical, A.S. swindan. 'He swounded and fell down at it.' 'What, did Csesar swound ?,—Julius Ccesar, I. ii. 247, 250.

Page 160, Outlandish food.—That is from a foreign clime. An '"" S' outlandish man originally meant a foreigner, not a native.

Dutch uitlander; German auslandisch, Lat. externus, peregrinus. The association of grotesqueness came later—

'And you shall knowe the cause wherefore these roabes are worne, And why I goe outlaiidishe lyke, yet being English borne.'

Gascoigne, Device of a Masque.

'Being seduced by outlandish lapidaries whereof the most part discourage us from the searching and seeking out of our own commodities.' — Harrison's Description of England (1577-1587).

Page 161, This is the Red-Cow.—A reference to the sacrifice and line 16. symbolism of the red heifer prescribed in Numbers xix. 2-10, as being 'a red heifer without spot, wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke,; and its sacrifice 'intended as an antidote to the defilement of death, which was latent in the whole congregation in the form of universal liability to death, (Kurtz, Sacrificial Worship, p. 425). Bunyan makes use of it, along with the Lamb, the Rock, the Door, and the Way, as typical of Christ.

Page 174, line 9.

The Gossips that were at my Christening.Gossip is here used in its first and etymological sense, namely, as a sponsor in baptism—God-sib, one sib or akin in God. 'Our Christian ancestors, understanding a spiritual affinity to grow between the parents and such as undertooke for the child at baptisme, called each other by the name of God-sib, which is as much as to say, as that they were sib together, that is kin together through God.'—Verstegan, Restitution of Decayed Intelligence. The word has been found in the intermediate forms God-sip and Gossib. Gossips in this primary ecclesiastical sense would ordinarily become very familiar with each other, even if not so before, and the word would eventually apply to all familiars and intimates, and to the idle, profitless talk they too often had with each other.

Nor did it at all please me to see men veil their bonnets.— page isi, To lower, and therefore to yield or recede, to give place. line 17From the Old French avaler, to let fall down. From this we have avalanche, valley, vale. 'They stiffly refused to vail their bonnets.,—Carew. 'Thy convenience must vail to thy neighbour,s necessity.,—South.

Documented in all good things. —Instructed (doceo). See page 192, note to page 31, line 18. line 25"

All terrene and domestick matters.—See also p. 305, line 7. Page 194, Terrene = earthly, Lat. terra, terrenus. 'And far more line 28' lovely than the terrene plant, that blushing in the air turns to a stone.'—Taming of the Shrew. 'Alack, our terrene moon is now eclipsed.'—Ant. and Cleop. III. xi. 'God set before him a mortal and immortal life, a nature celestial and terrene.'—Sir "W. Raleigh.

Have ston'd this naughty-pack to death.—An old phrase of page 211, abuse, afterwards applied to children in softer manner. Itllne 6' was originally a term of reproach generally applied to a woman. 'A harlot, cockatrice, naughty-pack, light house wife, common hackney.,—Cotgrave. 'He called me the vilest nicknames as if I had been an arrant naughty-pack.' —Chapman, May Day, IV. p. 88.

Page 215, Are you afraid of being sparrow-blasted t—That is, Are line 26.

you alarmed about trifles, afraid of imaginary perils? 'What art that canst look thus Pie-pickt, Crow-trod, or Sparrow-blasted? Ha!'—Brome (1657), The Queen's Exchange, V. i. 'To lock up one's wife for fear of sparrow-blasting.'Tell-trothe's New Yeare's Gift, p. 35 (1593). 'Otherwise they say, we pray against sparrow-blasting.' — Thomas Adams, Expos. 2 Peter ii. 1 (1633).

Page 233, They were clothed in sheep's-russet.—In Shakespeare's time 11,11 2' and Bunyan's 'russet' signified gray or ash-coloured. The former speaks of 'russet -pated choughs.' — Midsummer Night,s Dream, III. ii. 21. In the passage before us Bunyan says that the three emissaries of Diabolus 'were clothed in sheep's-russet, which was also now in a manner as white as were the white robes of the men of Mansoul.' There is a reference in this to the holiday dress of shepherds—

'And for the better credit of the world
In their fresh russets, every one doth go.'—Drayton.

Thus they tried to impose upon the people of Mansoul by assuming the airs of simple, honest, homespun countrymen.

'Thus robed in russett ieh romede a boute
Al a somer seson.'—-Piers Plowman, p. 166.

'But his first wyfe, old plaine russet cote Jone of the countrie, good wyfe truth commeth creeping home to my lorde's conscience.'—Bp. Gardiner, Of True Obedience.

'Henceforth my wooing mind shall be express'd
In russet yeas and honest kersey noes.'

Love's Labour's Lost, V. ii. 413.

Page 235, line 20.

At your whistle.—Ready to come at call. 'Their King is at their Whistle, he is never out of hearing.'—Pilgrim's Progress, Part I. 144.

The peevish old Gentleman took pepper in the nose.—That Page 236, is, he took offence. Similar to the French expression, 'La line 6' moutarde lui inontait au nez.'

'Well may his nose that is dominical
Take pepper in't, to see no Pen at all
Stir to applaud his merits.'—Brome (1664).

They were presently as great as beggars.—On very familiar Page 237, terms, or, as that other expression has it, 'As thick as line 29' thieves.'

Quoth Cerberus. . . . By St. Mary / am glad. —It is Page 238, amusing to find Cerberus, the three-headed watch-dog of the infernal regions and one of the creations of Roman mythology, swearing by St. Mary, the patron saint of the Catholic Church.

A foot in their dish, or trough: partly in possession. page 238, Akin to the saying, 'To have a finger in the pie.' line 13

As good a Coranto.—A coranto was an ancient dance, pag6 239, moving to an air in triple time, in which the dancers 6' described a set figure forming a kind of lengthened ellipse. It was perhaps not so much a dance as a graceful walk, full of beautiful attitudes, in which the performers did not rise from the ground.

'They bid us to the English dancing-schools,
And teach lavoltas high and swift eorantos.'

King Henry V., III. v. 32.

This is Probatum est.—It has been proved. This is one Page 239, of the few cases where Bunyan makes use of a Latin ex- line pression. In the Pilgrim's Progress (Part II. p. 259) he quotes, Ex carne et sanguine Ghristi, and characteristically writes in the margin, 'The Lattine I borrow.' In the poetical preface to the Holy War he speaks of the soul as man's primum mobile (p. 3). He speaks of Death as old Mors (p. 3). His classical allusions also, as we might expect, are equally limited. He refers only to Cerberus, Python, and the three Furies Alecto, Tisiphone, and Megsera. See notes to p. 13.

Page 241, / will divert you, ray Lords, no lonqer.Divert is here line 20. . .

used in the sense of detain. Lat. divertere, to turn aside.

To turn the mind from business or study was to please or

amuse. Hence the secondary meaning of divert.

Page 250, To go to handigrips with. them.—That is to come to close line 27. encounter. A. S. gripan, to seize.

Page 251, More than eleven thousand died by the sickness of Mansoul. J' —In selecting this special number it would almost seem as if Bunyan had in his mind the story of St. Ursula, an English princess, who, according to the legend, was barbarously murdered at Cologne, together with her 11,000 attendant virgins.

Page 254, Take penance in the open place.—A reference to the penalty line 25

formerly inflicted by the Archdeacons, Courts. The offender against ecclesiastical law was made to stand out in some prominent place in the church, and there, wrapped in the white sheet of penitence, make public confession of his fault.

Page 255, Mr. Prywell made Scout-master General for the good of the line 19.

Town.—Sir Samuel Luke, under whom Bunyan probably
served at Newport Pagnell, was Scout-master General of
the Parliamentary forces during the Great Civil War.

Page 261, Mount Alecto, Mount Megsera, and Mount Tisiphone.
line 30. " . . - „
note to p. 13.

To land up Mouth-gate with dirt.—To silt up. 'Your Page 271, watercourses be landed up and want ditching.'—Instructions line 7' for Jurymen (1664).

It was jealoused.—It was suspected, feared. 'Before the Page272, rain came 1 jealoused the turnips.,—Halliwell.

The rest lay so quat and close.—Ital. quatto, husht, still, Page 273,

line 22

lurking. Old French esquacher, to crush. The usual form is 'squat and close.' Mid. English squatten, to crush flat.

Engine shot.—Gun-shot. Mid. English engin, a contriv- Page 275, ance, probably connected with Lat. ingenium. 'Who, when they would not lend their helping hand to any man in Migine-worke, nor making of bulwarkes and fortifications, used fool-hardily to sallie forth and fight most courageously.' —Holland, Ammianus, p. 127.

A Chirurgeon was scarce in Mansoul.—Chirurgeon is the Page 275, early form of the word surgeon. It is a Greek word, and line 3' means one who works with the hand, that is, in the art of healing. 'Andmostchirurgeonly.'Tempest,ll.i. 'Chastity makes no work for a chirurgeon, nor ever ends in rottenness of bones.,—South's Sermons, II. sermon 1. 'There are physicians in the islands who, I believe, all practise chirurgery, and all compound their own medicines.,—Johnson's Journey to the Western Islands.

To keep all his good documents alive.—Good instructions. page 277, Lat. documentum, a proof. 'Thus lovers with their moralline *' documents.'—Chaucer, The Graft of Lovers. See also note to p. 31, line 18.

The lot fell to Captain Goodhope to lead the Forlorn-hope.— Page 277, This expression, the forlorn hope, is here used in what was line 18' invariably its earlier sense. It was not, as now, applied to those who were the first to mount the breach, and thus set their lives upon a desperate hazard, but always to the skirmishers and others thrown out in front of an army about to engage. 'These (the Roman Velites) were loose troops, answerable in a manner to those which we call now by a French name Enfans Perdues, but when we use our own terms, The Forlorn Hope.'—Sir W. Raleigh, Hist, of the World, Bk. V. C. iii. § 8. See Trench's Glossary.

Page 284, Yea and almost brained many of them. —Struck on the head line 18. with mace or maul. 'It was the swift celerity of his death that brain'd my purpose.'—Measure for Measure, V. i. 'Zounds, an I were now by this rascal, I could brain him with his lady,s fan.'—King Henry IV. (Part I.) II. iii.

Page 285 ^or did they make stroy. —Equivalent to destroy. This line 21. was a common form from the twelfth century to the beginning of the seventeenth, when Chapman has it in his Homer, and was one of the earliest French words in English. 'Some they stroye and some they bronne.'—Halliwell. 'I dyd not stynt wyth the sword the dynt, till I had stroy,d them quite.'— M. Parker (1556), Psalms xviii. 39. 'And stroydst them with strong hand.,—Sternhold and Hopkins's (1583) Psalms, xliv. 2. 'A wilful stroy.'—Lord Delamer (1688), Works, 25. 'O Hector, fly this man, this homicide, That straight will stroy thee.'—Chapman's Homer, II. xxii. 37.

Page 300,

Objections refell'd with arguments. —Refelled (re, fallerc), line 6. to prove anything to be false, to refute, confute, reply.

'Thus having sufficiently (I trust) refelled their false posi-
tions, I leave them to the Lord.'—Stnbbes's Anatomy (1583),
p. 40.

'How I persuaded, how I pray'd and kncel'd,
How he refell'd me and how I replied.'

Measure for Measure, V. i. 94.

'Strong proofs brought out which strongly were refell'd.'— Daniel, Civil Wars, Bk. III.

Let them be those that are witty and true to us.—Witty is g301, here used in its ancient sense as equivalent to 'knowing.' 'Who knewe the witte of the Lord, or who was his counceilour ?"—Bom. xi. 34, Wiclif. (By wit) 'I understand a settled, constant, and habitual sufficiency of the understanding.'—Reynolds, Passions and Faculties of the Soul, C. xxxix.

You are down boys; you have the very length of my foot.— Page 327,

line 9.

Down boys are deep-knowing, determined fellows. To have the length of one's foot is to be like one,s self, to be one in purpose.

A nimble Jack, a hobgoblin or mischievous sprite; Jack- Page 340,

line 24

a-lantern. 'Jack, was a common term of contempt. A Jack guardant was a rascally sentinel. 'You shall perceive that a Jack guardant cannot office me from my son.'— Coriolanus, V. iii. 57. 'Take hence this Jack and whip him.'—Ant. and Cleopatra, III. xiii. 93.

Mine Engines.—See note to page 275, line 1. Page 349,

line 12.

Diabolus had certainly made a hand of thee. —That is, had Page 349, wasted, spoiled, destroyed thee. Bunyan used this expression in the Pilgrim's Progress, in reference to Apollyon and Christian, but afterwards altered it to 'made an end of.'