9:1 Now in the twelfth month, that [is], the month Adar, on the thirteenth day of the same, when the kings commandment and his decree drew near to be put in execution, in the day that the enemies of the Jews hoped to have power over them, (though it was a turned to the contrary, that the Jews had rule over them that hated them;)
(a) This was by Gods great providence, who turns the joy of the wicked into sorrow, and the tears of the godly into gladness. 9:3 And all the rulers of the provinces, and the lieutenants, and the deputies, and officers of the king, b helped the Jews; because the fear of Mordecai fell upon them.
(b) Honoured them and befriended them. 9:5 Thus the Jews smote all their c enemies with the stroke of the sword, and slaughter, and destruction, and did what they would unto those that hated them.
(c) Who had conspired their death by the permission of the wicked Haman. 9:6 And in Shushan the palace the Jews slew and destroyed d five hundred men.
9:10 The ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the enemy of the Jews, slew they; but e on the spoil laid they not their hand.
(d) Besides the three hundred that they slew the second day, ( Esther 9:15 ).
(e) By which they declared that this was Gods just judgment on the enemies of his Church as they fought not for their own gain, but to execute his vengeance. 9:13 Then said Esther, If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews which [are] in Shushan to do to morrow also according f unto this days decree, and let Hamans ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.
(f) This she requires not out of a desire for vengeance but with zeal to see Gods judgments executed against his enemies. 9:16 But the other Jews that [were] in the kings provinces gathered themselves together, and stood for g their lives, and had rest from their enemies, and slew of their h foes seventy and five thousand, but they laid not their hands on the prey,
9:17 On the i thirteenth day of the month Adar; and on the fourteenth day of the same rested they, and made it a day of feasting and gladness.
(g) Read ( Esther 8:11 ).
(h) Meaning, that they laid hands on no one that was not the enemy of God.
(i) Meaning, in all places saving Shushan. 9:19 Therefore the Jews of the villages, that dwelt in the unwalled towns, k made the fourteenth day of the month Adar [a day of] gladness and feasting, and a good day, and of sending portions one to another.
(k) As the Jews do even to this day, calling it in the Persian language Purim, that is, the day of lots. 9:20 And Mordecai wrote l these things, and sent letters unto all the Jews that [were] in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus, [both] nigh and far,
(l) The Jews gather from this that Mordecai wrote this book, but it seems that he wrote only these letters and decrees that follow. 9:22 As the days wherein the Jews rested from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow to joy, and from mourning into a good day: that they should make them days of feasting and joy, and of m sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor.
(m) He sets before our eyes the use of this feast which was for the remembrance of Gods deliverance, the maintenance of mutual friendship and relief of the poor. 9:24 Because Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, the enemy of all the Jews, had devised against the Jews to destroy them, and had n cast Pur, that [is], the lot, to consume them, and to destroy them;
9:25 But when o [Esther] came before the king, he commanded by letters that his wicked p device, which he devised against the Jews, should return upon his own head, and that he and his sons should be hanged on the gallows.
(n) Read ( Esther 3:7 ).
(o) That is, Esther. 9:27 The Jews ordained, and took upon them, and upon their seed, and upon all such as joined themselves unto them, so as it should not fail, that they would keep these two q days according to their writing, and according to their [appointed] time every year;
(p) These are the words of the kings commandment to disannul Hamans wicked enterprise.
(q) Meaning, the fourteenth and fifteenth days of the month of Adar. 9:30 And he sent the letters unto all the Jews, to the hundred twenty and seven provinces of the kingdom of Ahasuerus, [with] r words of peace and truth,
(r) Which were letters declaring to them quietness and assurance and putting them out of doubt and fear. 9:31 To confirm these days of Purim in their times [appointed], according as Mordecai the Jew and Esther the queen had enjoined them, and as they had decreed for themselves and for their seed, the matters of the s fastings and their cry.
(s) That they would observe this feast with fasting and earnest prayer, which in Hebrew is signified by this word (they cry).