20:1 The 1 first [day] of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.
(1) Mary Magdalene, Peter, and John, are the first witnesses of the resurrection, and these cannot justly be suspected, for they themselves could hardly be persuaded of it; therefore, they would obviously not invent such a story on purpose. 20:11 But Mary stood a without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down, [and looked] into the sepulchre,
(a) That is, outside of the cave which the sepulchre was cut out of. 20:12 2 And seeth two angels in b white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.
(2) Two angels are made witnesses of the Lords resurrection. 20:13 And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away c my Lord, and I know not where they have laid him.
(b) In white clothing.
(c) Mary spoke as the common people used to speak: for they spoke of a dead carcass as they did of a living man. 20:14 3 And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.
(3) Jesus witnesses by his presence that he is truly risen. 20:17 4 Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my d brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto e my Father, and your Father; and [to] my God, and your God.
(4) Christ, who is risen, is not to be sought in this world according to the flesh, but in heaven by faith where he has gone before us. 20:19 5 Then the same day at evening, being the first [day] of the week, when the f doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace [be] unto you.
(d) By his brethren he means his disciples, for in the following verse it is said that Mary told his disciples.
(e) He calls God his Father because he is naturally his Father in the Godhead, and he says "your Father" because he is our Father by grace through the adoption of the sons of God: that is, by taking us by his free grace to be his sons; Epiphanius.
(5) Christ, in that he presents himself before his disciples suddenly through his divine power, when the gates were shut, fully assures them both of his resurrection, and also of their apostleship, inspiring them with the Holy Spirit who is the director of the ministry of the Gospel. 20:23 6 Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; [and] whose soever [sins] ye retain, they are retained.
(f) Either the doors opened to him of their own accord, or the very walls themselves were a passage to him.
(6) The publishing of the forgiveness of sins by faith in Christ, and the setting forth and proclaiming the wrath of God in retaining the sins of the unbelievers, is the sum of the preaching of the gospel. 20:24 7 But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.
(7) Christ draws out of the unbelief of Thomas a certain and sure testimony of his resurrection. 20:29 8 Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed [are] they that have not seen, and [yet] have believed.
(8) True faith depends upon the mouth of God, and not upon the eyes of the flesh. 20:30 9 And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book:
(9) To believe in Christ, the Son of God and our only saviour, is the goal of the doctrine of the gospel, and especially of the true account of the resurrection.