12:1 And 1 he began to speak unto them by a parables. A [certain] man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about [it], and digged [a place for] the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country.
(1) The calling of God is unbounded, without exception, in regard to place, person, or time. 12:2 b And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard.
(a) This word "parable", which the evangelists use, not only signifies a comparing of things together, but also speeches and allegories with hidden meaning.
(b) When the fruits of the ground used to be gathered. 12:12 And they c sought to lay hold on him, but feared the people: for they knew that he had spoken the parable against them: and they left him, and went their way.
(c) They were greedy and very desirous. 12:13 2 And they send unto him certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, to catch him in [his] words.
(2) The gospel links the authority of the magistrate with the service of God. 12:14 And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou d regardest not the person of men, but teachest the e way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?
(d) You do not judge by the outward appearance, so that the truth is therefore not darkened by any means at all. 12:18 3 Then come unto him the Sadducees, which say there is no resurrection; and they asked him, saying,
(e) The way by which we come to see God.
(3) The resurrection of the body is confirmed, opposed to the foolish ignorance and malice of the Sadducees. 12:28 4 And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, Which is the first commandment of all?
(4) Sacrifices and outward worship never pleased God unless we first did the things which we owe to God and our neighbours. 12:35 5 And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the temple, How say the scribes that Christ is the Son of David?
(5) Christ proves his Godhead even out of David himself, from whom he came according to the flesh. 12:36 For David himself said by f the Holy Ghost, The LORD said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool.
(f) Literally, "in the Holy Spirit"; and there is a great power in this kind of speech, by which is meant that it was not so much David who was speaking, but instead the Holy Spirit, who in a way possessed David. 12:38 6 And he said unto them in g his doctrine, Beware of the scribes, which love to go in h long clothing, and [love] salutations in the marketplaces,
(6) The manners of ministers are not to be followed rashly as an example. 12:41 7 And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and beheld how the people i cast money into the treasury: and many that were rich cast in much.
(g) While he taught them.
(h) The word is a "stole", which is a kind of womans garment that goes down even to the heels, and is taken generally to refer to any pleasant looking garment, but in this place it seems to signify the fringed garment mentioned in ( Deuteronomy 22:12 ).
(7) The doing of our duties which God allows is not considered worthy according to the outward value, but instead according to the inward affections of the heart.
(i) Money of any type of metal which the Romans used, who in the beginning stamped or made coins of brass, and after used it for currency.