Artaxerxes, king of kings
Having many kings and kingdoms subject and tributary to him; for this was not merely a proud haughty title which the eastern kings F16 assumed, particularly the Persians; for after Cyrus they were so in fact, who took this title also, and had it put on his sepulchral monument,
``Here I lie, Cyrus, king of kings F17;''this title was given to Grecian kings, particularly Agamemnon is called king of kings F18, he being general at the siege of Troy, under whom the rest of the kings fought; if this was Darius Hystaspis, of him Cyrus dreamed that he had wings on his shoulders, with one he covered Asia, and with the other Europe F19:
unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven;
of which titles see ( Ezra 7:11 ) :
perfect [peace], and at such a time;
the word "perfect" belongs to Ezra's title as a scribe, signifying that he was a most learned and complete scribe or teacher of the law of God; "peace" is not in the text, and the phrase "at such a time" respects the date of the letter, though not expressed, or is only an "et cetera", (See Gill on Ezra 4:10).
F16 See the Universal History, vol. 5. p. 16, 137. & vol. 11. p. 7, 8. margin, & p. 66.
F17 Strabo, Geograph. l. 15. p. 502.
F18 Vell. Patercul. Hist. Roman. l. 1. in initio.
F19 Herodot. Clio, sive, l. 1. c. 209.