Jeremiah 46:18

Jeremiah 46:18

[As] I live, saith the King, whose name [is] the Lord of
hosts
A greater King than either Nebuchadnezzar or Pharaoh; the Lord of the armies of heaven and earth; and who has them all at his command and service; swears by his life, by himself, because he can swear by no greater, to the truth of what follows; for this is the form of an oath: surely, as Tabor [is] among the mountains, and as Carmel by the sea,
[so] shall he come.
Tabor is commonly said to be the mountain on which our Lord was transfigured; but that there is any just foundation for it is not certain. It was a mountain in Galilee, situated on the borders of the tribes of Issachar and Zebulun, ( Joshua 19:12 Joshua 19:22 ) ; it was two leagues from Nazareth eastward F14; three miles from the lake of Gennesaret; ten miles from Diocaesarea to the east; and two days' journey from Jerusalem F15. Adrichomius F16 says it was a most beautiful mountain, situated in the midst of the plain of Galilee, remarkable for its roundness, and was about four miles or thirty furlongs high, abounding with vines, olives, and fruit trees, with which it was set all over; and gave to those at sea a most delightful sight at a considerable distance. Our countryman, Mr. Maundrell F17, who travelled up it, gives this account of it; that it

``stands by itself in the plain of Esdraelon (the same the Scripture calls the valley of Jezreel); after a very laborious ascent (says he), which took up near an hour, we reached the highest part of the mountain: it has a plain area at top, most fertile and delicious; of an oval figure, extended about one furlong in breadth, and two in length: this area is enclosed with trees on all parts, except towards the south.''
It is called by the Septuagint, Josephus, and other writers, Itabyrium. Carmel is with great propriety called "Carmel by the sea"; it was situated on the border of the tribe of Asher; and near to it was the river Kishon, ( Joshua 19:26 ) ( 1 Kings 18:40 1 Kings 18:43 ) . So Mr. Maundrell F18 says,
``we arrived in two hours at that ancient river, the river Kishon, which cuts his way down the middle of the plain of Esdraelon; and then, continuing his course close by the side of Mount Carmel, falls into the sea at a place called Caypha;''
by which it appears that the mount was near the sea; and Pliny F19 calls it a promontory, and places it on the Phoenician shore; on which he says were the promontory Carmel, and a town upon the mountain of the same name, formerly called Ecbatana. Adrichomius F20 gives it the name of "Carmel of the sea"; and says it was a very high mountain, and woody, abounding with most noble vines, olives, fruit trees, and odoriferous herbs. So Josephus F21 makes mention of Carmel and the sea together; he says, the Zebulonites obtained land as far as the lake of Genezareth, contiguous to Carmel and the sea; and their being near to each other appears from a passage in the Jerusalem Talmud F23; says
``R. Samuel Bar Chain Bar Judah, in the name of R. Chanina, when the orb of the sun begins to set, a man standing on Mount Carmel, and goes down and dips in the great sea (the Mediterranean sea), and goes up again, and eats his "teruma" (or offering), it is a presumption that he dipped in the daytime;''
and which is also evident from the passage in ( 1 Kings 18:42 1 Kings 18:43 ) ; where Elijah and his servant are said to be on the top of Mount Carmel, and from thence he bid his servant look towards the sea: now these mountains so situated are taken notice of, either to show the manner of the king of Babylon's coming against Egypt; that as Tabor and Carmel were high mountains in the land of Israel, so should Nebuchadnezzar lift up his head on high, and come with great pride and haughtiness of spirit against the Egyptians; or rather the certainty of his coming, that he should come as sure as those mountains were in the places they were; or, best of all, the certainty of the destruction of the Egyptians, and the truth of this prophecy concerning it; though the Egyptians were as firm, and might think themselves as secure and as immovable, as the above mountains, yet should certainly come to ruin, and the word of God concerning it should stand as firm as they. To this sense agrees the Targum,
``as this word stands firm, that Tabor is among the mountains, and Carmel in the sea, so shall his destruction come.''
The words, according to the accents, may be better rendered, "as Tabor among the mountains, [and Carmel also], he shall come into the sea" {x}; that is, Pharaoh, though he lift up his head as high as Tabor and Carmel, he shall be brought low into the depths of the sea; into a most forlorn and deplorable condition, into a very low estate; and perhaps there may be an allusion to the ancient Pharaoh being drowned in the sea; and with this agrees the Syriac version, "Pharaoh shall fall as the fragment of a mountain, and as Carmel, into the midst of the sea"; compare with this ( Matthew 11:23 ) .
FOOTNOTES:

F14 Borchard, Breidenbach in Lightfoot, Chorograph. on John, vol. 2. p. 495.
F15 Vid. Reland. Palestina Illustrata, l. 1, c, 51, 331, 383.
F16 Theatrum Terrae Sanctae, Zabulon, No. 95. p. 143.
F17 Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 113, 114. Ed. 7.
F18 Ib. p. 57.
F19 Nat. Hist. l. 5. c. 19.
F20 Ut supra (Theatrum Terrae Sanctae), Issachar, No. 19. p. 35.
F21 Antiqu. l. 5. c. 1. sect. 22.
F23 T. Bab. Hieros. Beracot, fol. 2. 2.
F24 (awby Myb lmrkkw Myrhb dwbtk yk) "quia sicut Tabor in montibus, et sicut Carmel (scil. in montibus est) ita in mare veniet", Schmidt.
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