Set ye up a standard in the land
Not in Chaldea, but rather in any land; or in all the countries which belonged to Media and Persia; where Cyrus's standard is ordered to be set up, to gather soldiers together, and enlist in his service, in order to go with him in his expedition against Babylon: blow the trumpet among the nations;
for the same purpose, to call them to arms, to join the forces of Cyrus, and go with him into the land of Chaldea: prepare the nations against her:
animate them, stir up their spirits against her, and furnish them with armour to engage with her: or, "sanctify" F24 them; select a certain number out of them fit for such work: call together the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz;
the two former are generally thought to intend Armenia the greater, and the lesser; and the latter Ascania, a country in Phrygia; and certain it is that Cyrus first conquered these countries, and had many Armenians, Phrygians, and Cappadocians, in his army he brought against Babylon, as Xenophon F25 relates. The Targum is, declare
``against her to the kingdoms of the land of Kardu, the army of Armenia and Hadeb,''or Adiabene: appoint a captain against her;
``they shall cause the horses to come up, leaping like the shining locust;''that is of a yellow colour, and shines like gold. So the word the Targum here uses is used by Jonathan in ( Leviticus 13:32 ) ; of hair yellow as gold, and here to be understood of hairy locusts: and, as Aelianus F1 says, there were locusts of a golden colour in Arabia. And such may be meant here by the Chaldee paraphrase, which well expresses their motion by leaping; see ( Joel 2:5 ) ; and which agrees with that of horses. The word rendered "rough" has the signification of horror in it, such as makes the hair to stand upright; see ( Job 4:15 ) ; and so some F2 render it here. And Bochart F3, from Alcamus, an Arabic writer, observes, that there is a sort of locusts which have two hairs upon their head, which are called their horn, which when erected may answer to this sense of the word; and he brings in the poet Claudian F4, as describing the locust by the top of its head, as very horrible and terrible; and that some locusts? have hair upon their heads seems manifest from ( Revelation 9:8 ) ; though it may be, the reason why they are here represented as so dreadful and frightful may not be so much on account of their form, as for the terror they strike men with, when they come in great numbers, and make such terrible havoc of the fruits of the earth as they do; wherefore the above learned writer proposes to render the words, "as the horrible locusts" F5.