Isaiah 9:1-7 . CONTINUATION OF THE PROPHECY IN THE EIGHTH CHAPTER.
1. Nevertheless, &c.--rather, "For darkness shall not (continually) be on it (that is, the land) on which there is (now) distress" [HENGSTENBERG and MAURER]. The "for" refers, not to the words immediately preceding, but to the consolations in Isaiah 8:9 Isaiah 8:10 Isaiah 8:17 Isaiah 8:18 . Do not despair, for, &c.
when at the first, &c.--rather, "as the former time has brought contempt on the land of Zebulun and Naphtali (namely, the deportation of their inhabitants under Tiglath-pileser, 2 Kings 15:29 , a little before the giving of this prophecy); so shall the after-coming time bring honor to the way of the sea (the district around the lake of Galilee), the land beyond (but HENGSTENBERG, "by the side of") Jordan (Perea, east of Jordan, belonging to Reuben, Gad, and half-Manasseh), the circle (but HENGSTENBERG, "Galilee") (that is, region) of the "Gentiles" [MAURER, HENGSTENBERG, &c.]. Galil in Hebrew is a "circle," "circuit," and from it came the name Galilee. North of Naphtali, inhabited by a mixed race of Jews and Gentiles of the bordering Phoenician race ( Judges 1:30 , 1 Kings 9:11 ). Besides the recent deportation by Tiglath-pileser, it had been sorely smitten by Ben-hadad of Syria, two hundred years before ( 1 Kings 15:20 ). It was after the Assyrian deportation colonized with heathens, by Esar-haddon ( 2 Kings 17:24 ). Hence arose the contempt for it on the part of the southern Jews of purer blood ( John 1:46 , 7:52 ). The same region which was so darkened once, shall be among the first to receive Messiah's light ( Matthew 4:13 Matthew 4:15 Matthew 4:16 ). It was in despised Galilee that He first and most publicly exercised His ministry; from it were most of His apostles. Foretold in Deuteronomy 33:18 Deuteronomy 33:19 , Acts 2:7 , Psalms 68:27 Psalms 68:28 , Jerusalem, the theocratic capital, might readily have known Messiah; to compensate less favored Galilee, He ministered mostly there; Galilee's very debasement made it feel its need of a Saviour, a feeling not known to the self-righteous Jews ( Matthew 9:13 ). It was appropriate, too, that He who was both "the Light to lighten the Gentiles, and the Glory of His people Israel," should minister chiefly on the border land of Israel, near the Gentiles.
2. the people--the whole nation, Judah and Israel.
shadow of death--the darkest misery of captivity.
3. multiplied . . . nation--primarily, the rapid increase of Israelites after the return from Babylon; more fully and exhaustively the rapid spread of Christianity at first.
not increased the joy--By a slight change in the Hebrew, its (joy) is substituted by some for not, because "not increased the joy" seems opposite to what immediately follows, "the joy," &c. HENGSTENBERG, retains not thus: "Whose joy thou hadst not increased," (that is, hadst diminished). Others, "Hast thou not increased the joy?" The very difficulty of the reading, not, makes it less likely to be an interpolation. HORSLEY best explains it: The prophet sees in vision a shifting scene, comprehending at one glance the history of the Christian Church to remotest times--a land dark and thinly peopled--lit up by a sudden light-filled with new inhabitants--then struggling with difficulties, and again delivered by the utter and final overthrow of their enemies. The influx of Gentile converts (represented here by "Galilee of the Gentiles") soon was to be followed by the growth of corruption, and the final rise of Antichrist, who is to be destroyed, while God's people is delivered, as in the case of Gideon's victory over Midian, not by man's prowess, but by the special interposition of God.
before thee--a phrase taken from sacrificial feasts; the tithe of harvest was eaten before God ( Deuteronomy 12:7 , 14:26 ).
as men rejoice . . . divide . . . spoil--referring to the judgments on the enemies of the Lord and His people, which usually accompany revelations of His grace.
4. The occasion of the "joy," the deliverance not only of Ahaz and Judah from the Assyrian tribute ( 2 Kings 16:8 ), and of Israel's ten tribes from the oppressor ( 2 Kings 15:19 ), but of the Jewish Christian Church from its last great enemy.
hast--the past time for the future, in prophetic vision; it expresses the certainty of the event.
yoke of his burden--the yoke with which he was burdened.
staff of . . . shoulder--the staff which strikes his shoulder [MAURER]; or the wood, like a yoke, on the neck of slaves, the badge of servitude [ROSENMULLER].
day of Midian--( Judges 7:8-22 ). As Gideon with a handful of men conquered the hosts of Midian, so Messiah the "child" ( Isaiah 9:6 ) shall prove to be the "Prince of peace," and the small Israel under Him shall overcome the mighty hosts of Antichrist (compare Micah 5:2-5 ), containing the same contrast, and alluding also to "the Assyrian," the then enemy of the Church, as here in Isaiah, the type of the last great enemy. For further analogies between Gideon's victory and the Gospel, compare 2 Corinthians 4:7 , with Judges 7:22 . As the "dividing of the spoil" ( Isaiah 9:3 ) was followed by that which was "not joy," the making of the idolatrous ephod ( Judges 8:24-27 ), so the gospel victory was soon followed by apostasy at the first, and shall be so again after the millennial overthrow of Antichrist ( Revelation 20:3 Revelation 20:7-9 ), previous to Satan's last doom ( Revelation 20:10 ).
5. every battle, &c.--rather, "every greave of (the warrior who is) armed with greaves in the din of battle, and the martial garment (or cloak, called by the Latins sagum) rolled in blood, shall be for burning, (and) fuel for fire" [MAURER]. All warlike accoutrements shall be destroyed, as no longer required in the new era of peace ( Isaiah 2:4 , Isaiah 11:6 Isaiah 11:7 , Psalms 46:9 , Ezekiel 39:9 , Micah 5:5 Micah 5:10 , Zechariah 9:9 Zechariah 9:10 ). Compare Malachi 4:1 , as to the previous burning up of the wicked.
6. For--the ground of these great expectations,
unto us--for the benefit of the Jews first, and then the Gentiles (compare "unto you," Luke 2:11 ).
son . . . given--( Psalms 2:7 ). God's gratuitous gift, on which man had no claim ( John 3:16 , Romans 6:23 ).
government . . . upon . . . shoulder--The ensign of office used to be worn on the shoulder, in token of sustaining the government ( Isaiah 22:22 ). Here the government on Messiah's shoulder is in marked antithesis to the "yoke and staff" of the oppressor on Israel's "shoulder" ( Isaiah 9:4 ). He shall receive the kingdom of the earth from the Father, to vindicate it from the misrule of those to whom it was entrusted to hold it for and under the Most High, but who sought to hold it in defiance of His right; the Father asserts His right by the Son, the "Heir of all things," who will hold it for Him ( Daniel 7:13 Daniel 7:14 ).
name . . . called--His essential characteristics shall be. Judges 13:18 , Margin; 1 Timothy 3:16 ).
Counsellor--( Psalms 16:7 , Romans 11:33 Romans 11:34 , 1 Corinthians 1:24 , Colossians 2:3 ).
mighty God--( Isaiah 10:21 , Psalms 24:8 , Titus 2:13 ) HORSLEY translates: "God the mighty man." "Unto us . . . God" is equivalent to "Immanuel" ( Isaiah 7:14 ).
everlasting Father--This marks Him as "Wonderful," that He is "a child," yet the "everlasting Father" ( John 10:30 , 14:9 ). Earthly kings leave their people after a short reign; He will reign over and bless them for ever [HENGSTENBERG]. Genesis 49:10 ; Shiloh, "The Tranquillizer"). Finally ( Hosea 2:18 ). Even already He is "our peace" ( Luke 2:14 , Ephesians 2:14 ).
7. Of . . . increase . . . no end--His princely rule shall perpetually increase and be unlimited ( Daniel 2:44 ).
throne of David--( 1 Kings 8:25 , Psalms 2:6 , 132:11 , Jeremiah 3:17 Jeremiah 3:18 Ezekiel 34:23-26 , Ezekiel 37:16 Ezekiel 37:22 , Luke 1:32 Luke 1:33 , Acts 2:30 ).
judgment . . . justice--It is not a kingdom of mere might, and triumph of force over enemies, but of righteousness ( Isaiah 42:21 , Psalms 45:6 Psalms 45:7 ), attainable only in and by Messiah.
zeal, &c.--including not only Christ's hidden spiritual victory over Satan at the first coming, but the open one accompanied with "judgments" on Antichrist and every enemy at the second coming ( Isaiah 59:17 , Psalms 9:6-8 ).
Isaiah 9:8-10:4'. PROPHECY AS TO THE TEN TRIBES.
Delivered a little later than the previous one. The ninth and tenth chapters ought to have been so divided. The present division into chapters was made by Cardinal Hugo, in A.D. 1250; and into verses, by Robert Stephens, the famous printer of Paris, in 1551. After the Assyrian invasion of Syria, that of Ephraim shall follow ( 2 Kings 16:9 ); Isaiah 9:8-11 Isaiah 9:17-20 , foretell the intestine discords in Israel after Hoshea had slain Pekah (A.D. 739), that is, just after the Assyrian invasions, when for seven years it was stripped of magistrates and torn into factions. There are four strophes, each setting forth Ephraim's crime and consequent punishment, and ending with the formula, "For all this His anger is not turned away," &c. ( Isaiah 9:12 Isaiah 9:17 Isaiah 9:21 , and Isaiah 10:4 ).
10. bricks--in the East generally sun-dried, and therefore soon dissolved by rain. Granting, say the Ephraimites to the prophet's threat, that our affairs are in a ruinous state, we will restore them to more than their former magnificence. Self-confident unwillingness to see the judgments of God ( Isaiah 26:11 ).
hewn stones--( 1 Kings 5:17 ).
sycamores--growing abundantly on the low lands of Judea, and though useful for building on account of their antiseptic property (which induced the Egyptians to use them for the cases of their mummies), not very valuable. The cedar, on the other hand, was odorous, free from knots, durable, and precious ( 1 Kings 10:27 ). "We will replace cottages with palaces."
11. adversaries of Rezin--the Assyrians, who shall first attack Damascus, shall next advance "against him" (Ephraim). This is the punishment of Ephraim's pride in making light ( Isaiah 9:10 ) of the judgment already inflicted by God through Tiglath-pileser ( 2 Kings 15:29 ). A second Assyrian invasion The reading "princes" for "adversaries" in uncalled for.
join--rather, "arm"; cover with armor [MAURER].
12. Syrians--Though now allies of Ephraim, after Rezin's death they shall join the Assyrians against Ephraim. "Together," in Isaiah 9:11 , refers to this. Conquering nations often enlist in their armies the subject races ( Isaiah 22:6 ; compare 2 Kings 16:9 , Jeremiah 35:11 ), [ABEN EZRA, GESENIUS]. HORSLEY less probably takes "Syrians before," as the Syrians to the east, that is, not Rezin's subjects, but the Assyrians: "Aram" being the common name of Syrians and Assyrians.
behind--from the west: in marking the points of the compass, Orientalists face the east, which is before them: the west is behind. The right hand is the south: the left, the north.
devour--as a ravenous beast ( Isaiah 1:20 , Jeremiah 10:25 , 30:16 , Numbers 14:9 ).
For all this, &c.--The burden of each strophe.
13-17. Second strophe.
14. head and tail--proverbial for the highest and lowest ( Deuteronomy 28:13 Deuteronomy 28:44 ).
branch and rush--another image for the same thought ( Isaiah 19:15 ). The branch is elevated on the top of the tree: the rush is coarse and low.
15. ancient--the older.
honourable--the man of rank.
prophet . . . lies, . . . tail--There were many such in Samaria ( 1 Kings 22:6 1 Kings 22:22 1 Kings 22:23 ; compare as to "tail," Revelation 9:19 ).
16. leaders, &c.--(See Isaiah 3:12 , Margin, and
17. no joy--the parallelism, "neither . . . mercy," shows that this means, He shall have no such delight in their youthful warriors, however much they be the nation's delight and reliance, as to save them from the enemy's sword ( Isaiah 31:8 ; compare Jeremiah 18:21 ).
fatherless, &c.--not even the usual objects of His pity ( Psalms 10:14 Psalms 10:18 , 68:5 , Jeremiah 49:11 , Hosea 14:3 ) shall be spared.
hypocrite--rather, a libertine, polluted [HORSLEY].
folly--wickedness ( Psalms 14:1 ).
still--Notwithstanding all these judgments, more remain.
18-21. Third strophe.
burneth--maketh consumption, not only spreading rapidly, but also consuming like fire: sin is its own punishment.
briers . . . thorns--emblem of the wicked; especially those of low rank ( Isaiah 27:4 , 2 Samuel 23:6 ).
forest--from the humble shrubbery the flame spreads to the vast forest; it reaches the high, as well as the low.
mount up like . . . smoke--rather. "They (the thickets of the forest) shall lift themselves proudly aloft [the Hebrew is from a Syriac root, a cock, expressing stateliness of motion, from his strutting gait, HORSLEY], in (in passing into) volumes of ascending smoke" [MAURER].
19. darkened--namely, with smoke ( Isaiah 9:18 ). The Septuagint and Chaldee render it, "is burnt up," So MAURER, from an Arabic root meaning "suffocating heat."
no man . . . spare . . . brother--intestine discord snapping asunder the dearest ties of nature.
20. hungry--not literally. Image from unappeasable hunger, to picture internal factions, reckless of the most tender ties ( Isaiah 9:19 ), and insatiably spreading misery and death on every side ( Jeremiah 19:9 ).
eat--not literally, but destroy ( Psalms 27:2 , Job 19:22 ).
flesh of . . . arm--those nearest akin: their former support (helper) ( Isaiah 32:2 ) [MAURER].
21. Manasseh, Ephraim--the two sons of Joseph. So closely united as to form between them but one tribe; but now about to be rent into factions, thirsting for each other's blood. Disunited in all things else, but united "together against their brother Judah" ( 2 Kings 15:10 2 Kings 15:30 ).