2. Avoid self-praise.
3. heavy--The literal sense of "heavy," applied to material subjects, illustrates its figurative, "grievous," applied to moral.
a fool's wrath--is unreasonable and excessive.
4. envy--or, "jealousy" (compare Margin; Proverbs 6:34 ), is more unappeasable than the simpler bad passions.
5, 6. secret love--not manifested in acts is useless; and even, if its exhibition by rebukes wounds us, such love is preferable to the frequent (compare Margin), and hence deceitful, kisses of an enemy.
7. The luxury of wealth confers less happiness than the healthy appetite of labor.
8. Such are not only out of place, but out of duty and in danger.
9. rejoice the heart--the organ of perceiving what pleases the senses.
sweetness . . . counsel--or, "wise counsel is also pleasing."
10. Adhere to tried friends. The ties of blood may be less reliable than those of genuine friendship.
11. The wisdom of children both reflects credit on parents and contributes to their aid in difficulties.
14. Excessive zeal in praising raises suspicions of selfishness.
15. (Compare Proverbs 19:13 ).
very . . . day--literally "a day of showers."
16. hideth--or, "restrains" (that is, tries to do it); is as fruitless an effort, as that of holding the wind.
the ointment of his right hand--the organ of power ( Psalms 17:7 , 18:35 ). His right hand endeavors to repress perfume, but vainly. Some prefer: "His right hand comes on oil," that is, "cannot take hold." Such a woman cannot be tamed.
17. a man sharpeneth . . . friend--that is, conversation promotes intelligence, which the face exhibits.
18. Diligence secures a reward, even for the humble servant.
19. We may see our characters in the developed tempers of others.
20. Men's cupidity is as insatiable as the grave.
21. Praise tests character.
a man to his praise--according to his praise, as he bears it. Thus vain men seek it, weak men are inflated by it, wise men disregard it, &c.
22. The obstinate wickedness of such is incurable by the heaviest inflictions.
23, 24. flocks--constituted the staple of wealth. It is only by care and diligence that the most solid possessions can be perpetuated ( Proverbs 23:5 ).
25-27. The fact that providential arrangements furnish the means of competence to those who properly use them is another motive to diligence (compare Psalms 65:9-13 ).
The hay appeareth--literally, "Grass appeareth" ( Job 40:15 , Psalms 104:14 ).