Acts 19:9

But when some were hardened (w de tine esklhrunonto). Imperfect passive of sklhrunw, causative like hiphil in Hebrew, to make hard (sklhro) or rough or harsh ( Matthew 25:24 ). In LXX and Hippocrates and Galen (in medical writings). In N.T. only here and Romans 9:18 and 4 times in Hebrews 3:8 Hebrews 3:13 Hebrews 3:15 ; Hebrews 4:7 Hebrews 4:8 quoting and referring to Psalms 95:8 about hardening the heart like a gristle. The inevitable reaction against Paul went on even in Ephesus though slowly. Disobedient (epeiqoun). Imperfect again, showing the growing disbelief and disobedience (apeiqh), both ideas as in Psalms 14:2 ; Psalms 17:5 , first refusal to believe and then refusal to obey. Both sklhrunw and apeiqew occur together, as here, in Ecclus. 30:12. Speaking evil of the Way (kakologounte thn odon). Late verb from kakologo (speaker of evil) for the old kakw legw. Already in Mark 7:10 ; Mark 9:39 ; Matthew 15:4 . Now these Jews are aggressive opponents of Paul and seek to injure his influence with the crowd. Note "the Way" as in Matthew 9:2 for Christianity. He departed from them (aposta ap autwn). Second aorist active participle of apisthmi, made an "apostasy" (standing off, cleavage) as he did at Corinth ( Matthew 18:7 , metaba, making a change). Separated the disciples (apwrisen tou maqhta). First aorist active indicative of aporizw, old verb to mark limits (horizon) as already in Matthew 13:2 . Paul himself was a spiritual Pharisee "separated" to Christ ( Romans 1:1 ). The Jews regarded this withdrawal as apostasy, like separating the sheep from the goats ( Matthew 25:32 ). Paul now made a separate church as he had done at Thessalonica and Corinth. In the school of Tyrannus (en th scolh Turannou). Scolh (our school) is an old word from scein (ecw) to hold on, leisure and then in later Greek (Plutarch, etc.) a place where there is leisure as here. Only this example in the N.T. This is the Greek notion of "school," the Jewish being that of "yoke" as in Matthew 11:29 . The name Tyrannus (our tyrant) is a common one. It is an inscription in the Columbarium of the Empress Livia as that of a physician in the court. Furneaux suggests the possibility that a relative of this physician was lecturing on medicine in Ephesus and so as a friend of Luke, the physician, would be glad to help Paul about a place to preach. It was probably a public building or lecture hall with this name whether hired by Paul or loaned to him. The pagan sophists often spoke in such halls. The Codex Bezae adds "from the fifth hour to the tenth" as the time allotted Paul for his work in this hall, which is quite possible, from just before midday till the close of the afternoon (from before the noon meal till two hours before sunset) each day. Here Paul had great freedom and a great hearing. As the church grows there will be other places of meeting as the church in the house of Aquila and Priscilla ( 1 Corinthians 16:19 ).