We also all (kai hmei pante). We Jews. Once lived (anestraphmen pote). Second aorist passive indicative of anastrepw, old verb, to turn back and forth, to live ( 2 Corinthians 1:12 ). Cf. pote periepathsate, of the Gentiles in verse Ephesians 2:2 . The desires (ta qelhmata). Late and rare word except in LXX and N.T., from qelw, to will, to wish. Plural here "the wishes," "the wills" of the flesh like tai epiqumiai th sarko just before. Gentiles had no monopoly of such sinful impulses. Of the mind (twn dianoiwn). Plural again, "of the thoughts or purposes." Were by nature children of wrath (hmeqa tekna pusei orgh). This is the proper order of these words which have been the occasion of much controversy. There is no article with tekna. Paul is insisting that Jews as well as Gentiles ("even as the rest") are the objects of God's wrath (orgh) because of their lives of sin. See Romans 2:1-3:20 for the full discussion of this to Jews unpalatable truth. The use of pusei (associative instrumental case of manner) is but the application of Paul's use of "all" (pante) as shown also in Romans 3:20 ; Romans 5:12 . See pusei of Gentiles in Romans 2:14 . The implication of original sin is here, but not in the form that God's wrath rests upon little children before they have committed acts of sin. The salvation of children dying before the age of responsibility is clearly involved in Romans 5:13 .