And he gave (kai auto edwken). First aorist active indicative of didwmi. In 1 Corinthians 12:28 Paul uses eqeto (more common verb, appointed), but here repeats edwken from the quotation in verse 1 Corinthians 8 . There are four groups (tou men, tou de three times, as the direct object of edwken). The titles are in the predicate accusative (apostolou, prophta, poimena kai didaskalou). Each of these words occurs in 1 Corinthians 12:28 (which see for discussion) except poimena (shepherds). This word poimhn is from a root meaning to protect. Jesus said the good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep ( John 10:11 ) and called himself the Good Shepherd. In Hebrews 13:20 Christ is the Great Shepherd (cf. 1 Peter 2:25 ). Only here are preachers termed shepherds (Latin pastores) in the N.T. But the verb poimainw, to shepherd, is employed by Jesus to Peter ( John 21:16 ), by Peter to other ministers ( 1 Peter 5:2 ), by Paul to the elders (bishops) of Ephesus ( Acts 20:28 ). Here Paul groups "shepherds and teachers" together. All these gifts can be found in one man, though not always. Some have only one.