Revelation 14:8

Another, a second angel (allo deutero aggelo). This second angel "followed" (hkolouqhsen, first aorist active indicative of akolouqew) and interpreted in part the first one. Fallen, fallen (epesen, epesen). Prophetic aorist active indicative of piptw, repeated as a solemn dirge announcing the certainty of the fall. The English participle "fallen, fallen" is more musical and rhythmical than the literal rendering "fell, fell." The language is an echo of Isaiah 21:9 , though B in the LXX has peptwken, peptwken (perfect). Babylon the great (Babulwn h magalh). The adjective megalh occurs with Babulwn each time in the Apocalypse ( Isaiah 14:8 ; Isaiah 16:19 ; Isaiah 17:5 ; Isaiah 18:2 Isaiah 18:10 Isaiah 18:21 ) as a reminder of Nebuchadrezzar. There is no doubt that Rome is meant by Babylon, as is probably seen already in 1 Peter 5:13 . As a prisoner in Patmos John can speak his mind by this symbolism. Hath made to drink (pepotiken). Perfect active indicative of potizw, old causative verb (from poto drinking, 1 Peter 4:3 ), as in Matthew 25:35 . The remarkable phrase that follows seems based on Jeremiah 51:8 ( Jeremiah 25:15 ). It is a combination also of Revelation 14:10 (the wine of God's wrath, also in Revelation 16:19 ; Revelation 19:15 ) and Revelation 17:2 . There is no doubt of the dissoluteness of the old Babylon of Jeremiah's day as of the Rome of John's time. Rome is pictured as the great courtesan who intoxicates and beguiles the nations to fornication ( Revelation 17:2 Revelation 17:4 Revelation 17:6 ), but the cup of God's wrath for her and her paramours is full ( Revelation 14:10 ; Revelation 16:19 ; Revelation 18:2 ).