And they sat upon them (kai ekaqisan ep autou). First aorist active indicative of kaqizw. Another period here apparently synchronous (verse Revelation 7 ) with the confinement of Satan in the abyss. No subject is given for this plural verb. Apparently Christ and the Apostles ( Matthew 19:28 ; Luke 22:30 ) and some of the saints ( 1 Corinthians 6:3 ), martyrs some hold. Judgment was given unto them (krima edoqh autoi). First aorist passive of didwmi. Picture of the heavenly court of assizes. The souls (ta psuca). Accusative after eidon at the beginning of the verse. Of them that had been beheaded (twn pepelekismenwn). Genitive of the articular perfect passive participle of pelekizw, old word (from peleku an axe, the traditional instrument for execution in republican Rome, but later supplanted by the sword), to cut off with an axe, here only in N.T. See 1 Corinthians 6:9 ; 1 Corinthians 18:24 ; 1 Corinthians 19:2 for previous mention of these martyrs for the witness of Jesus ( 1 Corinthians 1:9 ; 1 Corinthians 12:17 ; 1 Corinthians 19:10 ). Others also besides martyrs shared in Christ's victory, those who refused to worship the beast or wear his mark as in 1 Corinthians 13:15 ; 1 Corinthians 14:9 ; 1 Corinthians 16:2 ; 1 Corinthians 19:20 . And they lived (kai ezhsan). First aorist active indicative of zaw. If the ingressive aorist, it means "came to life" or "lived again" as in 1 Corinthians 2:8 and so as to verse 1 Corinthians 20:5 . If it is the constative aorist here and in verse 1 Corinthians 5 , then it could mean increased spiritual life. See John 5:21-29 for the double sense of life and death (now literal, now spiritual) precisely as we have the second death in Revelation 2:11 ; Revelation 20:6Revelation 20:14 . And reigned with Christ (kai ebasileusan meta tou Cristou). Same use of the first aorist active indicative of basileuw, but more clearly constative. Beckwith and Swete take this to apply solely to the martyrs, the martyrs' reign with Christ.