Revelation 21:19

Were adorned (kekosmhmenoi). Perfect passive participle of kosmew as in verse Revelation 2 , but without the copula hsan (were), followed by instrumental case liqwi (stone). With all manner of precious stones (panti liqwi timiwi). "With every precious stone." The list of the twelve stones in verses Revelation 19 20 has no necessary mystical meaning. "The writer is simply trying to convey the impression of a radiant and superb structure" (Moffatt). The twelve gems do correspond closely (only eight in common) with the twelve stones on the high priest's breastplate ( Exodus 28:17-20 ; Exodus 39:10 ; Ezekiel 28:13 ; Isaiah 54:11 ). Charles identifies them with the signs of zodiac in reverse order, a needless performance here. See the stones in Revelation 4:3 . These foundation stones are visible. For jasper (iaspi) see Revelation 4:3 ; Rev 21:11 Rev 21:18 ; Isaiah 54:12 ; sapphire (sappeiro) see Exodus 24:10 ; Isaiah 54:11 (possibly the lapi lazuli of Turkestan); chalcedony (calkhdwn) we have no other reference in N.T. or LXX (described by Pliny, H.N. XXXIII.21), possibly a green silicate of copper from near Chalcedon; emerald (smaragdo) here only in N.T., see Isaiah 4:3 smaragdino, and like it a green stone.