As it is written (kaqw gegraptai oti). Usual formula of quotation as in verse Romans 4 with recitative oti added as in verse Romans 8 . Paul here uses a catena or chain of quotations to prove his point in verse Romans 9 that Jews are in no better fix than the Greeks for all are under sin. Dr. J. Rendel Harris has shown that the Jews and early Christians had Testimonia (quotations from the Old Testament) strung together for certain purposes as proof-texts. Paul may have used one of them or he may have put these passages together himself. Verses Romans 10-12 come from Psalms 14:1-3 ; first half of Romans 3:13 as far as edoliousan from Ps 4:9, the second half from Psalms 140:3 ; verse Romans 3:14 from Psalms 10:7 ; Psalms 15-17 from an abridgment of Isaiah 59:7 ; verse Romans 3:18 from Psalms 35:1 . Paul has given compounded quotations elsewhere ( 2 Corinthians 6:16 ; Romans 9:25 Romans 9:27 ; Romans 11:26 Romans 11:34 ; Romans 12:19 ). Curiously enough this compounded quotation was imported bodily into the text (LXX) of Psalms 14:1 after verse 4 in Aleph B, etc. There is none righteous, no, not one (ouk estin dikaio oude ei). "There is not a righteous man, not even one." This sentence is like a motto for all the rest, a summary for what follows.