Jesus bears his own cross as they head to the place of crucifixion. However, along the way a man is solicited to assist him named Simon, who was from ... Read more
Jesus bears his own cross as they head to the place of crucifixion. However, along the way a man is solicited to assist him named Simon, who was from Cyrene. Only Luke records Jesus speaking to the women who were following along when he prophesies of the coming persecution. In less than 40 years after the crucifixion, Jerusalem would undergo a massive assault by the Roman army. Josephus (War of the Jews, Book 6, chapter 3) reports that some mothers were reduced to eating their children during the famine in Rome’s siege against Jerusalem, A.D. 66-70. You will recall that Jesus had already prophesied the destruction of Jerusalem back in Matthew 24:2 and Luke 21:6
When they parted the garment of Jesus and cast lots for it, all four gospel writers record it, but only Matthew and John relate the action to a fulfillment of the Messianic prophecy by David in Psalm 22:18 . It's also interesting here that the Jewish leaders have still not received sufficient satisfaction. They stand beneath and mock Jesus upon the cross. Only Mark (15:28) makes the link between Isaiah's prophecy in Isaiah 53:12 , "...and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors." That was a reference to Jesus being crucified with criminals. However, Luke records that one of those criminals trusts Jesus for salvation and is received by Jesus that day (Luke 23:43). All four Gospels record the sign placed upon the cross of Jesus that read, "THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS." It was written in three languages - Hebrew, Greek and Latin. Only John records how much this irritated the Jewish leadership. They wanted it reworded, but Pilate refused.
You will notice that the Jewish leadership persists in their ridicule of Jesus even as he is hanging on the cross. Why? It is important to them to dispel any belief among the common Jewish masses that Jesus is the Messiah. Therefore, they make a point to note that Jesus, who performed many miracles during his earthly ministry, is not delivering himself from this cruel death. To them, this taunting should prove to the masses that Jesus is not the Messiah.
What a horrifying sight it would be as a mother to see your innocent son being tortured and crucified. Jesus, however, assigns the responsibility of his mother's welfare to "the disciple whom Jesus loved." Most scholars agree that this is a reference to John. The other two Marys at the cross were Mary Magdalene and Mary, the wife of Cleopas (aka Alphaeus) and mother of James, one of the twelve Apostles. She was Mary's sister according to verse 25. Two sisters named Mary...must indicate the popularity of the name "Mary." As a matter of fact, archaeologists have speculated from the inscriptions on ossuaries that approximately 25% of all women during that period were named "Mary." Read less
This is a continuation by John of the sixth trial of Jesus leading up to his crucifixion, and this is his second appearance before Pilate. This tri... Read more
This is a continuation by John of the sixth trial of Jesus leading up to his crucifixion, and this is his second appearance before Pilate. This trial began back in John 18:39 and continues here. You will note that John does not record the intermission taken by Pilate from this ordeal when he sent Jesus to Herod in Luke 23:6-16 ; neither do Matthew nor Mark. That being the case, when one just reads the accounts of Matthew, Mark and John, one is left with the impression that Jesus only appeared before Pilate once, and that this is a continuation of trial #4. However, Luke puts it into perspective in letting us know that this is the second appearance of Jesus before Pilate. This incident takes place after Jesus has been scourged, mocked with the crown of thorns and tortured by the Roman guards.
You can imagine that Jesus' physical appearance at this point in time must have been distasteful to view. It would appear that Pilate is thinking that the Jewish leadership will look upon Jesus in this condition and say "enough is enough!" Nope! They want him crucified. Pilate then tries to pass the responsibility off to them, but they pull out the big guns in verse 7 when they proclaim, "We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God." The Jewish leaders are undoubtedly invoking Leviticus 24:16 , "And he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death, and all the congregation shall certainly stone him: as well the stranger, as he that is born in the land, when he blasphemeth the name of the LORD, shall be put to death."
Here's a personal observation with my informed opinion regarding the circumstances and tactics of these angry Jewish leaders. At this point in Jesus' earthly ministry, many of the everyday Jews were losing respect for the corrupt Jewish leadership and giving heed to the teachings of Jesus. Because of this large-scale popularity among the Jewish populace, the Jewish leadership had devised a way to find and capture Jesus at night when the people would not see their anti-Jesus actions. Judas provided the betrayal they needed and allowed them to capture Jesus in an obscure spot in the garden way after nightfall when the multitudes had bedded down for the night. All of the six trials had taken place in the wee hours of the morning while regular ol' Jews were sleeping. Here's the plan: When these regular people wake up, they need to see Jesus being put to death by Romans, not by the Jewish leadership. The Roman judgment hall is packed with anti-Jesus Jewish leaders - not common Jews. To the typical common Jew, Jesus was popular among the people when he went to bed and being crucified by the Roman government when he woke up; what a full night that had been! Undoubtedly, the Jewish leadership felt that if the entire process involving their sinister actions can take place during the night, they will be held guiltless by the Jewish people. By the next morning, it looks like a Roman campaign to put a stop to Jesus. I'm relatively certain that most of the Jewish population had no idea that this whole crucifixion had been orchestrated by their very own Jewish leaders.
Pilate's job was to keep peace in his territory. Now his judgment hall is filled with Jews crying for the immediate execution of Jesus; Pilate senses his dilemma. Jesus actually comforts Pilate at that point in verse 11 when he tells Pilate, "Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin." Subsequently, Pilate wants to release Jesus, but notice verse 12, "And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar." The Jewish leadership is so determined to have Jesus crucified, they make an unimaginable statement in verse 15, "The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar." They lived their lives looking forward to the overthrow of the Roman government, but make a proclamation like this for their own wicked self interests.
John reports in John 19:14 that this proceeding took place "about the sixth hour." John is apparently the only Gospel writer to render the time using the Roman convention for doing so. Mark reports in Mark 15:25, "And it was the third hour, and they crucified him." That means three hours from the beginning of the day (sunrise), or about 9:00 a.m. or so. The abbreviation a.m. represents a latin phrase "ante meridiem" which means "before noon." That usage began in Rome during the fourth century B.C. and originally counted backwards from when the sun reached it's highest point during the day. So, when John reports "about the sixth hour," he is referring to six hours before the sun reached its highest point, placing it in the 6:00 a.m. range for this trial, perhaps a little later by our clocks since John uses the preposition "about." Read less
39 But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?
40 Then ... Read more
39 But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?
40 Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.
19:1 Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him.
Keep in mind, the crowd had been transported from the Sanhedrin to Pilate. As a matter of fact, Matthew tells us in verse 18 that Pilate is aware that the real issue here is "envy" on the part of these Jewish leaders. However, when given the choice between the release of Jesus or the murderer Barabbas, Pilate is certain they will call for the release of Jesus over a murderer. Wrong! There is no morality with the Jewish leaders. Barabbas only threatens their lives, not their livelihoods. Only Matthew records that Pilate's wife weighs in on the controversy. She's had a dream, "Pilate...just step away!" Hmmmm...my wife or these angry Jews - to whom do I listen? That's when Pilate does the infamous hand washing. Influenced by the polls, he fails to act on his own moral conscience and his wife's dream. As he washes his hands, look at what he says in verse 24, "When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but that rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it." However, pay careful attention to the reply made by these Jewish leaders in verse 25, "Then answered all the people, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children." Matthew, Mark and John then record that Jesus was scourged.
2 And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe,
3 And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands.
Matthew, Mark and John record that the Roman soldiers mocked, spit and smote Jesus after replacing his robe (the one Herod had given him) with a purple/scarlet one and placing the homemade crown of thorns on his head. What kind of an adult male finds this entertaining? These Roman soldiers had no stake in this controversy whatsoever. So...why did they do what they did? Prophecy...Isaiah 53 - the account of the suffering of the Messiah had been written down centuries before. Read less
28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they shou... Read more
28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.
One might get the impression that all of Jerusalem had turned out at this point to accuse Jesus from Luke 23:1, "And the whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate." However, we notice from the Matthew and Mark accounts that the "of them" was just the Jewish leaders and their loyal followers. Keep in mind, this appearance before Pilate takes place just after dawn - 6:30 a.m. or so. Jesus has already made three appearances for judgment through this night; these Jewish leaders knew they had a lot to do under the cover of night before the Jewish populace would begin their day. Most Jews would have been completely unaware of the sinister acts of their leaders at this early hour.
John mentions the passover observance plans of some of the Jewish leaders that prevented them from entering the "judgment hall" where Pilate was passing judgment on Jesus. Didn't Jesus and his disciples already observe passover the night before? It would appear that there was a difference of practice regarding the proper day to celebrate the passover supper as early as the first century - on Nisan 14 or Nisan 15. Today, Jews celebrate passover on Nisan 15, even though Leviticus 23:5 says, "In the fourteenth day of the first month [Nisan] at even is the LORD’S passover." Read less
# Before Whom Jews: Annas, ex-high priest of Jews
Time 2:00 AM
Reference John 18:13, 23
Accusation Not specific “Guilty” of irr... Read more
# Before Whom Jews: Annas, ex-high priest of Jews
Time 2:00 AM
Reference John 18:13, 23
Accusation Not specific “Guilty” of irreverenceResults Taken to Caiaphas
We see only in John's account an appearance by Jesus before Annas, the former High Priest and father-in-law of the current High Priest, Caiaphas. As an elder statesman, perhaps his purpose was to help his son-in-law build a preliminary case against Jesus in advance of the more public and meaningful appearance before the High Priest himself. The accounts of Luke and John focus on a different aspect of this appearance (false trial) than Matthew and Mark. John and Luke skip telling us about the false witnesses and go straight for the conversation between Caiaphas and Jesus regarding the identity of Jesus.
John makes an interesting insertion into the record in John 18:14 when he makes reference to a statement made by Caiaphas after Jesus resurrected Lazarus. Feeling threatened by the miracle of that resurrection, John makes reference to what Caiaphas stated to the other Jewish leaders in John 11:49-52, " And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not. And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation; And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad." John is recalling that occasion here.
Since Jesus was on trial for statements he had made regarding his identity, Luke and John demonstrate to us that Jesus forces Caiaphas to supply those witnesses who heard him make such statements. The witnesses (in the accounts by Matthew and Mark) are feeble at best. Both appearances (before Annas and Caiaphas) take place in the wee hours of the morning, and thus are illegal trials according to contemporary law. Finally, however, Caiaphas asks Jesus directly if he is the Messiah. Mark records the very clear reply by Jesus to Caiaphas in verse 14:62, "And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven." Jesus answers in the affirmative that he is, indeed, the "Christ," the Son of God. The Greek word for "Christ" is "christos," and it is the word for "Messiah." This is the admission they had sought as grounds for his arrest and execution. Since the Old Testament implications of a Messiah include ruling the world, they feel they have all the evidence they need to get a prosecution before a Roman court and a subsequent execution.
Meanwhile, Peter is hanging with the temple crowd and denying Jesus. John spends more time talking about Peter's denial than he does the actual appearance before the High Priest by Jesus. Could it be that John was that unspecified disciple of John 18:15 who gained entrance to this first trial venue with Peter? As a matter of fact, it was this unspecified disciple (probably John) who helped Peter actually gain entrance into the area of the palace where the trial itself was being held, but Peter is standing over with the palace servants during the trial. We see in Luke's account (verse 61) that Jesus actually looked over at Peter after his third verbal denial.
You will notice that none of the disciples stood with Jesus at trial; it wasn't just Peter who forsook him. Particular note is taken in all four Gospel accounts of this denial by Peter, probably in view of his adamant assertion earlier that he, above all other disciples, absolutely, positively would not deny Jesus. What marks Peter's denial as particularly noteworthy is the manner in which he finally did so after being repeatedly confronted (Matthew 26:72-74; Mark 14:71). Notice that Mark says that Peter finally "began to curse and to swear, saying, I know not this man of whom ye speak." The Greek verb there for "curse" is "anathematizo." It means "to invoke divine harm." The verb for "swear" is "omnuo" and means "to take an oath." Literally, Peter swore with an oath a divine curse upon himself if he was not telling the truth about not knowing Jesus. A vow strengthened with a curse...now that's a strong denial!
Is that a rooster I hear? Recall the words of Jesus to Peter at the last supper in Luke 22:34, "And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me." Just as Jesus had prophesied, Peter had denied Jesus three times.
Let's add a little additional perspective to this denial. First of all, John was probably that other disciple in John 18:15 who assisted in getting Peter into the area where the trial was being held, so there were two of the disciples there. Jesus had previously asked back in the garden that his disciples be released (John 18:8,). The others apparently did not attend the trial, but these two disciples did. The distinction here is that Peter was the one who was asked about his relationship with Jesus and issued the denials. Allow me to emphasize once again, none of his disciples actually stood with Jesus at his trial. Read less
Judas does the betrayal deed, but Peter takes his sword and lops off the ear of the high priest's servant, Malchus (John 18:10). Jesus returns the ear... Read more
Judas does the betrayal deed, but Peter takes his sword and lops off the ear of the high priest's servant, Malchus (John 18:10). Jesus returns the ear to its place and declares that his betrayal and capture are part of the divine plan. It's curious that only John records the actual name of the ear lopper.
Matthew 26:56 is an eye opener regarding Jesus' disciples - the ones who had earlier proclaimed that they would die for Jesus - when it says, "Then all the disciples forsook him, and fled." Mark says the same in verse 50. It's just most interesting to note that Matthew makes reference to himself (he was one of those disciples) when he records these words in verse 56.
Jesus points out to the angry mob ("a great multitude with swords and staves") how unnecessary it is for them to take him with this (seemingly) overwhelming force. Only Matthew makes a point to link Jesus' passive surrender to Old Testament prophecy when he says in verse 56, "But all this was done, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled." David, Isaiah and others had recorded prophecies concerning the suffering Messiah; there was no other way.
We should take notice of the fact that Peter was willing to fight to the death with Jesus; the sword/ear incident demonstrates that. Peter wasn't, however, prepared to passively stand there and surrender. Add to that the fact that Jesus requests that his disciples be allowed to leave without harm in John 18:8 (see above), and you can see why Peter's denial at this point wasn't such a glaring incident. However, later that night when Jesus was on trial before Annas and Caiaphas (Matthew 26:57-75; Mark 14:53-72; Luke 22:54-65; John 18:13-27 - see notes), Peter does make his infamous denial of Jesus that has caused him to be set apart from the other disciples.
Incidentally, "certain young man" of Mark 14:51-52 is only found in those two verses. Why did Mark only include this incident without explanation? Many have conjectured that Mark is referring to himself there; really, there's no way of knowing for certain. Read less
John identifies the crowd in 18:3, "Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with l... Read more
John identifies the crowd in 18:3, "Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons." We see in John 18:2 that Judas anticipated that Jesus would go there because he had done so on previous occasions. You will recall from Luke 22:3-6 that the agreement with Judas was that he take them to Jesus in a spot away from the multitudes so that they could take him without the notice of the common people. This isolated location in the garden was that opportunity.
Quite a crowd shows up to capture Jesus. John records, "a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons. ." Matthew and Mark record them as "a great multitude with swords and staves." This angry crowd is taking no chances. Judas does the betraying, but John records that Jesus freely and openly acknowledges that he is the one for whom they are looking. John records that Jesus shields the other disciples from danger in verses 8-9. He notes that Jesus did so in order to fulfill his own previous words found in John 17:12 when he prayed, "While I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name: those that thou gavest me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled." Both Matthew and Mark report that Judas addresses Jesus as "master" (Greek: rabbi). This was a general title of respect and honor frequently used to acknowledge a person's accomplishments in interpreting the Jewish Scriptures. Matthew records in verse 50 that Jesus addresses Judas when he says, "Friend, wherefore art thou come?" The "friend" that is used to characterize Jesus' reference to Judas here is not the usual "philos" used for friend indicating affection between two people. Instead, Jesus refers to Judas as "hetairos," which simply means "comrade" or "associate."
We should observe that, while all of the disciples of Jesus did flee from Jesus that night, Jesus did encourage them to do so in John 18:8, "Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way." Read less
Jesus heads from the supper to the Garden of Gethsemane. You will notice from John 18:1 that this is not the same occasion where Jesus prayed in John ... Read more
Jesus heads from the supper to the Garden of Gethsemane. You will notice from John 18:1 that this is not the same occasion where Jesus prayed in John 17. All the disciples went to the garden, but Matthew and Mark report that Jesus only took three of them (Peter, James and John) closer to the place in the garden where he prayed. It is worth noting that these disciples could not remain awake while Jesus prayed. These are disciples who, just a few hours earlier, had proclaimed that they would be willing to die for Jesus if necessary (Matthew 26:31-35; Mark 14:27-31; Luke 22:31-34; John 13:36-38 ). Yeah! But can you stay awake for Jesus!
I think there's a lesson here. The test of discipleship is, first of all, obeying and following Jesus in the small things first. Matthew, Mark and Luke record the same comment by Jesus when he implies that the temptation to betrayal can be offset by prayer - not sleeping. Many Believers today are quick to declare the sacrifice that they are willing to make for the sake of Christ. Here's the question: Are you making the little sacrifices that demonstrate your love for Jesus Christ right now? Peter, James and John were admonished three times to "watch and pray," but they failed to do so. Is it any surprise, therefore, that they were also unwilling to stand with Jesus during his trials later on that night?
If Jesus is God (and he is), why is he praying? The answer is to be found in Philippians 2:7-8 (see notes), "But [Jesus] made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross." At this point in time, Jesus had emptied himself of his attributes of deity; he communicated with God in Heaven just as we do. The subject of the prayer: Is there a way to redeem the world without dying on the cross? NO! It's an intense prayer - to the point that Luke (the physician) records, "his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground." Luke's reference to blood here must mean that the sweat dripping from Jesus was in such quantity that it was similar to blood dripping from a wound. Yet, the disciples slept through the whole ordeal.
A couple of more observations are interesting here. John gives no detail regarding the prayer activities in Gethsemane. In fact, he was one of the sleepers in the garden; perhaps he did not witness very much there. Luke, on the other hand, is the only one to report that an angel came and ministered to Jesus there during his prayer. Luke received his eyewitness account from one or more of the disciples at a later date. Apparently all of the disciples could see Jesus praying, inasmuch as Luke reports that they were only a "stone's cast" away. Peter, James and John were closer.
By the way, we have seen Jesus gather these three disciples together for special events before. A year or so earlier, when Jesus went to the house of Jairus to resurrect his daughter (Matthew 9:18-26; Mark 5:21-43; Luke 8:40-56 ), he only allowed these three of his disciples to accompany him into the house. Then again, at the Transfiguration (Matthew 17:1-9; Mark 9:2-10; Luke 9:28-36 ), only these three of Jesus' disciples were allowed to witness that miracle. It's obvious that these three men had been selected for Jesus' leadership team among the disciples. Read less
Nehemiah Had asked about the exile of the Jewish people and Jerusalem. They told him the the Jewish people were in Jerusalem and in great trouble. The... Read more
Nehemiah Had asked about the exile of the Jewish people and Jerusalem. They told him the the Jewish people were in Jerusalem and in great trouble. The walls of Jerusalem were burnt down and destroyed. That is when Nehemiah started praying and asked the Lord God to hear his servants prayers and then asked for forgiveness of the sins he had made and his fathers house. He said they acted very bad against the Lord commands. You told moses that if we are unfaithful i will scatter you among the nations but if you return to me and obey my commands. I will gather all the people and bring them back to my land even the exile ones. Read less
God had told Cyrus king of Persia to tell his people to help make a temple for god in Jerusalem. That's when everyone loyal to the Lord went and helpe... Read more
God had told Cyrus king of Persia to tell his people to help make a temple for god in Jerusalem. That's when everyone loyal to the Lord went and helped with the making of the temple of the Lord. The neighbors of Jerusalem had come and helped. they brought gold and silver to the temple of god. There was 5,400 articles of gold and silver. That they had brought to Jerusalem. Read less