It was reported to David: "Look, the Philistines are fighting against Keilah and raiding the threshing floors."
References for 1 Samuel 23:1
So David inquired of the Lord: "Should I launch an attack against these Philistines?" The Lord answered David, "Launch an attack against the Philistines and rescue Keilah."
But David's men said to him, "Look, we're afraid here in Judah; how much more if we go to Keilah against the Philistine forces!"
Once again, David inquired of the Lord, and the Lord answered him: "Go at once to Keilah, for I will hand the Philistines over to you.
Then David and his men went to Keilah, fought against the Philistines, drove their livestock away, and inflicted heavy losses on them. So David rescued the inhabitants of Keilah.
Abiathar son of Ahimelech fled to David at Keilah, and he brought an ephod with him.
References for 1 Samuel 23:6
When it was reported to Saul that David had gone to Keilah, he said, "God has handed him over to me, for he has trapped himself by entering a town with barred gates."
Then Saul summoned all the troops to go to war at Keilah and besiege David and his men.
When David learned that Saul was plotting evil against him, he said to Abiathar the priest, "Bring the ephod."
Then David said, "Lord God of Israel, Your servant has heard that Saul intends to come to Keilah and destroy the town because of me.
Will the citizens of Keilah hand me over to him? Will Saul come down as Your servant has heard? Lord God of Israel, please tell Your servant." The Lord answered, "He will come down."
Then David asked, "Will the citizens of Keilah hand me and my men over to Saul?" "They will," the Lord responded.
So David and his men, numbering about 600, left Keilah at once and moved from place to place. When it was reported to Saul that David had escaped from Keilah, he called off the expedition.
David then stayed in the wilderness strongholds and in the hill country of the Wilderness of Ziph. Saul searched for him every day, but God did not hand David over to him.
David was in the Wilderness of Ziph in Horesh when he saw that Saul had come out to take his life.
References for 1 Samuel 23:15
Then Saul's son Jonathan came to David in Horesh and encouraged him in [his faith in] God,
References for 1 Samuel 23:16
saying, "Don't be afraid, for my father Saul will never lay a hand on you. You yourself will be king over Israel, and I'll be your second-in-command. Even my father Saul knows it is true."
References for 1 Samuel 23:17
Then the two of them made a covenant in the Lord's presence. Afterwards, David remained in Horesh, while Jonathan went home.
References for 1 Samuel 23:18
Some Ziphites came up to Saul at Gibeah and said, "David is hiding among us in the strongholds in Horesh on the hill of Hachilah south of Jeshimon.
References for 1 Samuel 23:19
Now, whenever the king wants to come down, let him come down. Our part will be to hand him over to the king."
"May you be blessed by the Lord," replied Saul, "for you have taken pity on me
Go and check again. Investigate and watch carefully where he goes and who has seen him there; they tell me he is extremely cunning.
References for 1 Samuel 23:22
Look and find out all the places where he hides. Then come back to me with accurate information, and I'll go with you. If it turns out he really is in the region, I'll search for him among all the clans of Judah."
References for 1 Samuel 23:23
So they went to Ziph ahead of Saul. Now David and his men were in the wilderness near Maon in the Arabah south of Jeshimon,
and Saul and his men went to look for [him]. When David was told about it, he went down to the rock and stayed in the Wilderness of Maon. Saul heard of this and pursued David there.
Saul went along one side of the mountain and David and his men went along the other side. Even though David was hurrying to get away from Saul, Saul and his men were closing in on David and his men to capture them.
Then a messenger came to Saul saying, "Come quickly, because the Philistines have raided the land!"
So Saul broke off his pursuit of David and went to engage the Philistines. Therefore, that place was named the Rock of Separation.
From there David went up and stayed in the strongholds of En-gedi.
References for 1 Samuel 23:29