Covenant Renewal

1 So the king sent [messengers], and they gathered to him all the elders of Jerusalem and Judah.

References for 2 Kings 23:1

      2 Then the king went to the Lord's temple with all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, as well as the priests and the prophets-all the people from the youngest to the oldest. As they listened, he read all the words of the book of the covenant that had been found in the Lord's temple.
      3 Next, the king stood by the pillara and made a covenant in the presence of the Lord to follow the Lord and to keep His commandments, His decrees, and His statutes with all his mind and with all his heart,b and to carry out the words of this covenant that were written in this book; all the people agreed toc the covenant.d

      References for 2 Kings 23:3

        • a 23:3 - 2 Ch 34:31 reads platform
        • b 23:3 - Dt 6:4-6
        • c 23:3 - Lit people took a stand in
        • d 23:3 - Ex 24:3-8; Jos 24:14-28; 2 Ch 34:29-32

          Josiah's Reforms

          4 Then the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest and the priests of the second rank and the doorkeepers to bring out of the Lord's temple all the articles made for Baal, Asherah, and the whole heavenly host. He burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of the Kidron and carried their ashes to Bethel

          References for 2 Kings 23:4

              5 Then he did away with the idolatrous priests the kings of Judah had appointed to burn incense at the high places in the cities of Judah and in the areas surrounding Jerusalem. They had burned incense to Baal, and to the sun, moon, constellations, and the whole heavenly host.
              6 He brought out the Asherah polee from the Lord's temple to the Kidron Valley outside Jerusalem. He burned it at the Kidron Valley,f beat it to dust, and threw its dust on the graves of the common

              References for 2 Kings 23:6

                • e 23:6 - 2 Kg 18:4; 1 Kg 14:15,23
                • f 23:6 - 1 Kg 15:13
                • g 23:6 - Lit the sons of the people
                • h 23:6 - 2 Ch 34:4
                  7 He also tore down the houses of the male shrine prostitutesi that were in the Lord's temple, in which the women were weaving tapestriesj for Asherah.

                  References for 2 Kings 23:7

                    • i 23:7 - Dt 23:17; 1 Kg 14:24; 15:12
                    • j 23:7 - Or clothing
                      8 Then Josiah brought all the priests from the cities of Judah, and he defiled the high places from Geba to Beer-sheba, where the priests had burned incense. He tore down the high places of the gates at the entrance of the gate of Joshua the governor of the city (on the left at the city gate).
                      9 The priests of the high places, however, did not come up to the altar of the Lord in Jerusalem; instead, they ate unleavened bread with their fellow priests.k

                      References for 2 Kings 23:9

                        • k 23:9 - Ezk 44:10-14
                          10 He defiled Topheth,l which is in the Valley of Hinnom, so that no one could make his son or his daughter pass through the fire to Molech.m

                          References for 2 Kings 23:10

                            • l 23:10 - Jr 7:31-32
                            • m 23:10 - Lv 18:21; 20:2-5; 1 Kg 11:7; Jr 32:35
                              11 He did away with the horses that the kings of Judah had dedicated to the sun.n [They had been] at the entrance of the Lord's temple in the precincts by the chamber of Nathan-melech the court official, and he burned up the chariots of the sun.

                              References for 2 Kings 23:11

                                • n 23:11 - Dt 4:19; Ezk 8:16
                                  12 The king tore down the altars that were on the roofo-Ahaz's upper chamberp that the kings of Judah had made-and the altars that Manasseh had made in the two courtyards of the Lord's temple. Then he smashed themq there and threw their dust into the Kidron Valley.

                                  References for 2 Kings 23:12

                                    • o 23:12 - Jr 19:13; Zph 1:4-5
                                    • p 23:12 - 2 Kg 20:11
                                    • q 23:12 - Text emended; MT reads he ran from
                                      13 The king also defiled the high places that were across from Jerusalem, to the south of the Mount of Destruction, which Solomon king of Israel had built for Ashtoreth, the detestable idol of the Sidonians; for Chemosh, the detestable idol of Moab; and for Milcom, the abomination of the Ammonites.r

                                      References for 2 Kings 23:13

                                          14 He broke the sacred pillars into pieces, cut down the Asherah poles, then filled their places with human bones.
                                          15 He even tore down the altar at Bethel and the high place that Jeroboam son of Nebat, who caused Israel to sin, had made. Then he burned the high place, crushed it to dust, and burned the Asherah.
                                          16 As Josiah turned, he saw the tombs there on the mountain. He sent [someone] to take the bones out of the tombs, and he burned them on the altar.s He defiled it according to the word of the Lord proclaimed by the man of Godt who proclaimed these things.u

                                          References for 2 Kings 23:16

                                            • s 23:16 - 2 Ch 34:5
                                            • t 23:16 - LXX adds when Jeroboam stood by the altar of the feast. And he turned and raised his eyes to the tomb of the man of God
                                            • u 23:16 - 1 Kg 13:2
                                              17 Then he said, "What is this monument I see?" The men of the city told him, "It is the tomb of the man of God who came from Judah and proclaimed these things that you have done to the altar at Bethel."v

                                              References for 2 Kings 23:17

                                                • v 23:17 - 1 Kg 13:31-32
                                                  18 So he said, "Let him rest. Don't let anyone disturb his bones." So they left his bones undisturbed with the bones of the prophet who came from Samaria.
                                                  19 Josiah also removed all the shrines of the high places that were in the cities of Samaria, which the kings of Israel had made to provoke [the Lord]. Josiah did the same things to them that he had done at Bethel
                                                  20 He slaughtered on the altars all the priests of the high places who were there, and he burned human bones on the altars.w Then he returned to Jerusalem.

                                                  References for 2 Kings 23:20

                                                      Passover Observed

                                                      21 The king commanded all the people, "Keep the Passover of the Lord your God as written in the book of the covenant."

                                                      References for 2 Kings 23:21

                                                        • x 23:21 - Nm 9:1-14; Dt 16:1-8; 2 Ch 35:1-6
                                                          22 No such Passover had ever been kept from the time of the judges who judged Israel through the entire time of the kings of Israel and Judah.
                                                          23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah, this Passover was observed to the Lord in Jerusalem.x

                                                          References for 2 Kings 23:23

                                                            • y 23:23 - 2 Ch 35:18-19

                                                              Further Zeal for the Lord

                                                              24 In addition, Josiah removed the mediums, the spiritists,y household idols, images, and all the detestable things that were seen in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem. He did this in order to carry out the words of the law that were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the Lord's temple.

                                                              References for 2 Kings 23:24

                                                                • z 23:24 - 2 Kg 21:6; Lv 19:31
                                                                  25 Before him there was no king like him who turned to the Lord with all his mind and with all his heart and with all his strengthz according to all the law of Moses, and no one like him arose after him.{

                                                                  References for 2 Kings 23:25

                                                                    • { 23:25 - 2 Kg 23:3; Dt 6:4-9
                                                                    • | 23:25 - 2 Kg 18:5; 1 Kg 3:12
                                                                      26 In spite of all that, the Lord did not turn from the fierceness of His great wrath and anger, which burned against Judah because of all the provocations Manasseh had provoked Him with.|

                                                                      References for 2 Kings 23:26

                                                                        • } 23:26 - 2 Kg 21:11-13
                                                                          27 For the Lord had said, "I will also remove Judah from My sight just as I have removed Israel. I will reject this city Jerusalem, that I have chosen, and the temple about which I said, 'My name will be there.' "}

                                                                          References for 2 Kings 23:27

                                                                            • ~ 23:27 - 2 Kg 21:4; Dt 12:11; 1 Kg 9:3

                                                                              Josiah's Death

                                                                              28 The rest of the events of Josiah's [reign], along with all his accomplishments, are written about in the Historical Record of Judah's Kings.~

                                                                              References for 2 Kings 23:28

                                                                                •  23:28 - 2 Ch 35:26-27
                                                                                  29 During his reign, Pharaoh Neco king of Egypt marched up to the king of Assyria at the Euphrates river. King Josiah went to confront him, and at Megiddo when Neco saw him he killed him.

                                                                                  References for 2 Kings 23:29

                                                                                      30 From Megiddo his servants carried his dead body in a chariot, brought him into Jerusalem, and buried him in his own tomb. Then the common people€ took Jehoahaz son of Josiah, anointed him, and made him king in place of his father.

                                                                                      References for 2 Kings 23:30

                                                                                        •  23:30 - Lit the people of the land
                                                                                        • ‚ 23:30 - 2 Ch 35:20-25; 36:1

                                                                                          Judah's King Jehoahaz

                                                                                          31 Jehoahaz was 23 years old when he became king; he reigned three months in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Hamutal daughter of Jeremiah; [she was] from Libnah.

                                                                                          References for 2 Kings 23:31

                                                                                              32 He did what was evil in the Lord's sight just as his ancestors had done.
                                                                                              33 Pharaoh Neco imprisoned him at Riblah in the land of Hamath to keep him from reigning in Jerusalem, and he imposed on the land a fine of 7,500 pounds‚ of silver and 75 poundsƒ of gold.„

                                                                                              References for 2 Kings 23:33

                                                                                                • ƒ 23:33 - Lit 100 talents
                                                                                                • „ 23:33 - Lit one talent
                                                                                                • … 23:33 - 2 Ch 36:2-3

                                                                                                  Judah's King Jehoiakim

                                                                                                  34 Then Pharaoh Neco made Eliakim son of Josiah king in place of his father Josiah and changed Eliakim's name to Jehoiakim. But Neco took Jehoahaz and went to Egypt, and he died there.

                                                                                                  References for 2 Kings 23:34

                                                                                                      35 So Jehoiakim gave the silver and the gold to Pharaoh, but at Pharaoh's command he taxed the land to give the money. He exacted the silver and the gold from the people of the land, each man according to his valuation,… to give it to Pharaoh Neco.

                                                                                                      References for 2 Kings 23:35

                                                                                                        • † 23:35 - Ex 30:12-16; Lv 27:2-8
                                                                                                          36 Jehoiakim was 25 years old when he became king; he reigned 11 years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Zebidah daughter of Pedaiah; [she was] from Rumah
                                                                                                          37 He did what was evil† in the Lord's sight just as his ancestors had done.‡

                                                                                                          References for 2 Kings 23:37

                                                                                                            • ‡ 23:37 - Jr 22:13-19; 36:1-26
                                                                                                            • ˆ 23:37 - 2 Ch 36:4-5