David's Last Words

1 These are the last words of David: The proclamation of David son of Jesse, the proclamation of the man raised on high,a the one anointed by the God of Jacob,b the favorite singer of Israel:

References for 2 Samuel 23:1

    • a 23:1 - Or raised up by the high [God]
    • b 23:1 - 1 Sm 16:12-13; Ps 89:20
      2 The Spirit of the Lord spoke through me, His word was on my tongue.c

      References for 2 Samuel 23:2

          3 The God of Israel spoke; the Rock of Israel said to me, "The one who rules the people with justice, who rules in the fear of God,d

          References for 2 Samuel 23:3

            • d 23:3 - Ps 72:1-3; Isa 11:1-5
              4 is like the morning light when the sun rises on a cloudless morning, the glisten of rain on sprouting grass."
              5 Is it not true my house is with God? For He has established an everlasting covenant with me, ordered and secured in every [detail].e Will He not bring about my whole salvation and [my] every desire?

              References for 2 Samuel 23:5

                • e 23:5 - 2 Sm 7:12-16; Ps 89:29; Isa 55:3
                  6 But all the wicked are like thorns raked aside; they can never be picked up by hand.
                  7 The man who touches them must be armed with iron and the shaft of a spear. They will be completely burned up on the spot.

                  Exploits of David's Warriors

                  8 These are the names of David's warriors:f Josheb-basshebeth the Tahchemonite was chief of the officers.g He wielded his spearh against 800 [men] he killed at one time.

                  References for 2 Samuel 23:8

                    • f 23:8 - 1 Ch 11:11-47
                    • g 23:8 - Some Hb mss, LXX read Three
                    • h 23:8 - Some Hb mss; other Hb mss, LXX read He was Adino the Eznite
                      9 After him, Eleazar son of Dodo son of Ahohi was among the three warriors with David when they defied the Philistines. The men of Israel retreated in the place they had gathered for battle,
                      10 but Eleazar stood [his ground] and attacked the Philistines until his hand was tired and stuck to his sword. The Lord brought about a great victory that day. Then the troops came back to him, but only to plunder the dead.
                      11 After him was Shammah son of Agee the Hararite. The Philistines had assembled [in formation] where there was a field full of lentils. The troops fled from the Philistines,
                      12 but Shammah took his stand in the middle of the field, defended it, and struck down the Philistines. So the Lord brought about a great victory.
                      13 Three of the 30 leading [warriors] went down at harvest time and came to David at the cave of Adullam,i while a company of Philistines was camping in the Valley of Rephaim.

                      References for 2 Samuel 23:13

                          14 At that time David was in the stronghold,j and a Philistine garrison was at Bethlehem.

                          References for 2 Samuel 23:14

                            • j 23:14 - 2 Sm 5:9; 1 Sm 22:4-5
                              15 David was extremely thirstyk and said, "If only someone would bring me water to drink from the well at the city gate of Bethlehem!"

                              References for 2 Samuel 23:15

                                • k 23:15 - Lit And David craved
                                  16 So three of the warriors broke through the Philistine camp and drew water from the well at the gate of Bethlehem. They brought it back to David, but he refused to drink it. Instead, he poured it out to the Lord.
                                  17 David said, "Lord, I would never do such a thing! Is this not the blood of men who risked their lives?" So he refused to drink it. Such were the exploits of the three warriors.
                                  18 Abishai, Joab's brother and son of Zeruiah,l was leader of the Three.m He raised his spear against 300 [men] and killed them, gaining a reputation among the Three.

                                  References for 2 Samuel 23:18

                                    • l 23:18 - 2 Sm 18:2; 1 Sm 26:3-6
                                    • m 23:18 - Some Hb mss, Syr read the Thirty
                                      19 Was he not the most honored of the Three? He became their commander even though he did not become one of the Three.
                                      20 Benaiah son of Jehoiadan was the son of a brave man from Kabzeel, a man of many exploits. Benaiah killed two sonso of Arielp of Moab, and he went down into a pit on a snowy day and killed a lion.

                                      References for 2 Samuel 23:20

                                        • n 23:20 - 2 Sm 8:18; 20:23
                                        • o 23:20 - LXX; MT omits sons
                                        • p 23:20 - Or two warriors
                                          21 He also killed an Egyptian, a huge man. Even though the Egyptian had a spear in his hand, Benaiah went down to him with a club, snatched the spear out of the Egyptian's hand, and then killed him with his own spear
                                          22 These were the exploits of Benaiah son of Jehoiada, who had a reputation among the three warriors.
                                          23 He was the most honored of the Thirty, but he did not become one of the Three. David put him in charge of his bodyguard.
                                          24 Among the Thirty were: Joab's brother Asahel,q Elhanan son of Dodo of Bethlehem,

                                          References for 2 Samuel 23:24

                                              25 Shammah the Harodite, Elika the Harodite,
                                              26 Helez the Paltite, Ira son of Ikkesh the Tekoite,
                                              27 Abiezer the Anathothite, Mebunnai the Hushathite,
                                              28 Zalmon the Ahohite, Maharai the Netophathite,
                                              29 Heleb son of Baanah the Netophahite, Ittai son of Ribai from Gibeah of the Benjaminites,
                                              30 Benaiah the Pirathonite, Hiddai from the Wadis of Gaash,r

                                              References for 2 Samuel 23:30

                                                • r 23:30 - Or from Nahale-gaash
                                                  31 Abi-albon the Arbathite, Azmaveth the Barhumite,
                                                  32 Eliahba the Shaalbonite, the sons of Jashen, Jonathan son ofs

                                                  References for 2 Samuel 23:32

                                                    • s 23:32 - Some LXX mss; MT omits son of; 1 Ch 11:34
                                                      33 Shammah the Hararite, Ahiam son of Sharar the Hararite,
                                                      34 Eliphelet son of Ahasbai son of the Maacathite, Eliam son of Ahithophel the Gilonite,t

                                                      References for 2 Samuel 23:34

                                                          35 Hezro the Carmelite, Paarai the Arbite,
                                                          36 Igal son of Nathan from Zobah, Bani the Gadite,
                                                          37 Zelek the Ammonite, Naharai the Beerothite, the armor-bearer for Joab son of Zeruiah,
                                                          38 Ira the Ithrite, Gareb the Ithrite,
                                                          39 and Uriah the Hittite.u There were 37 in all.

                                                          References for 2 Samuel 23:39