Downfall of Egypt and Assyria

1 In the eleventh year, in the third [month], on the first [day] of the month, the word of the Lord came to me:

References for Ezekiel 31:1

      2 "Son of man, say to Pharaoh king of Egypt and to his hordes: Who are you like in your greatness?
      3 Think of Assyria, a cedar in Lebanon,a with beautiful branches and shady foliage, and of lofty height. Its top was among the clouds.bc

      References for Ezekiel 31:3

        • a 31:3 - Isa 10:33-34
        • b 31:3 - Or thick foliage
        • c 31:3 - Ezk 19:11
          4 The waters caused it to grow; the underground springs made it tall, directing their rivers all around the place where the tree was planted and sending their channels to all the trees of the field.
          5 Therefore the cedar became greater in height than all the trees of the field. Its branches multiplied, and its boughs grew long as it spread [them] out because of the plentiful water.d

          References for Ezekiel 31:5

              6 All the birds of the sky nested in its branches,e and all the animals of the field gave birth beneath its boughs; all the great nations lived in its shade.

              References for Ezekiel 31:6

                • e 31:6 - Ezk 17:23; Dn 4:12,21; Mt 13:32
                  7 It was beautiful in its greatness, in the length of its limbs, for its roots extended to abundant water.
                  8 The cedars in God's garden could not rival it; the pine trees couldn't compare with its branches, nor could the plane trees match its boughs. No tree in the garden of God could compare with it in beauty.
                  9 I made it beautiful with its many limbs, and all the trees of Eden, which were in God's garden, envied it.f

                  References for Ezekiel 31:9

                    • f 31:9 - Ezk 28:13; Gn 2:8; Isa 51:3
                      10 "Therefore this is what the Lord God says: Since itg became great in height and set its top among the clouds,h and iti grew proudj on account of its height,

                      References for Ezekiel 31:10

                        • g 31:10 - Syr, Vg; MT, LXX read you
                        • h 31:10 - Or thick foliage
                        • i 31:10 - Lit its heart
                        • j 31:10 - Ezk 28:17; Dn 5:20
                          11 I determined to hand it over to a ruler of nations; he would surely deal with it. I banished it because of its wickedness.k

                          References for Ezekiel 31:11

                              12 Foreigners, ruthless men from the nations,l cut it down and left it lying. Its limbs fell on the mountains and in every valley; its boughs lay broken in all the earth's ravines. All the peoples of the earth left its shade and abandoned it.

                              References for Ezekiel 31:12

                                • l 31:12 - Ezk 28:7; 32:12
                                  13 All the birds of the sky nested on its fallen trunk, and all the animals of the field were among its boughs.
                                  14 [This happened] so that no trees [planted] beside water would become great in height and set their tops among the clouds,m and so that no [other] well-watered trees would reach them in height. For they have all been consigned to death, to the underworld, among the people who descend to the Pit.n

                                  References for Ezekiel 31:14

                                    • m 31:14 - Or thick foliage
                                    • n 31:14 - Ezk 26:20, 32:18,24
                                      15 "This is what the Lord God says: I caused grieving on the day the cedar went down to Sheol.o I closed off the underground deep because of it:p I held back the rivers of the deep, and [its] abundant waters were restrained. I made Lebanon mourn on account of it, and all the trees of the field fainted because of it.

                                      References for Ezekiel 31:15

                                        • o 31:15 - Ezk 32:21
                                        • p 31:15 - Or I covered it with the underground deep
                                          16 I made the nations quake at the sound of its downfall, when I threw it down to Sheol [to be] with those who descend to the Pit. Then all the trees of Eden,q all the well-watered trees, the choice and best of Lebanon, were comfortedr in the underworld.

                                          References for Ezekiel 31:16

                                            • q 31:16 - Ezk 28:13; Isa 51:3
                                            • r 31:16 - Ezk 32:31
                                              17 They too descended with it to Sheol, to those slain by the sword. As its alliesstthey had lived in its shade among the nations.

                                              References for Ezekiel 31:17

                                                • s 31:17 - LXX, Syr read offspring
                                                • t 31:17 - Lit arm
                                                  18 "Who then are you like in glory and greatness among Eden's trees? You also will be brought down to the underworld [to be] with the trees of Eden.u You will lie among the uncircumcised with those slain by the sword.v This is Pharaoh and all his hordes"-the declaration of the Lord God .

                                                  References for Ezekiel 31:18

                                                    • u 31:18 - Ezk 26:20; 32:24
                                                    • v 31:18 - Ezk 32:21,25