Abram's wife Sarai had not borne him children. She owned an Egyptian slave named Hagar.
Sarai said to Abram, "Since the Lord has prevented me from bearing children, go to my slave; perhaps I can have children by her." And Abram agreed to what Sarai said.
So Abram's wife Sarai took Hagar, her Egyptian slave, and gave her to her husband Abram as a wife for him. [This happened] after Abram had lived in the land of Canaan 10 years.
He slept with Hagar, and she became pregnant. When she realized that she was pregnant, she looked down on her mistress.
Then Sarai said to Abram, "You are responsible for my suffering! I put my slave in your arms, and ever since she saw that she was pregnant, she has looked down on me. May the Lord judge between me and you."
Abram replied to Sarai, "Here, your slave is in your hands; do whatever you want with her." Then Sarai mistreated her so much that she ran away from her.
The Angel of the Lord found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, the spring on the way to Shur.
He said, "Hagar, slave of Sarai, where have you come from, and where are you going?" She replied, "I'm running away from my mistress Sarai."
Then the Angel of the Lord said to her, "You must go back to your mistress and submit to her mistreatment."
The Angel of the Lord also said to her, "I will greatly multiply your offspring, and they will be too many to count."
Then the Angel of the Lord said to her: You have conceived and will have a son. You will name him Ishmael, for the Lord has heard your [cry of] affliction.
This man will be [like] a wild ass. His hand will be against everyone, and everyone's hand will be against him; he will live at odds with all his brothers.
So she named the Lord who spoke to her: The God Who Sees, for she said, "Have I really seen here the One who sees me?"
That is why she named the spring, "A Well of the Living One Who Sees Me." It is located between Kadesh and Bered.
So Hagar gave birth to Abram's son, and Abram gave the name Ishmael to the son Hagar had.
Abram was 86 years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to him.
When Abram was 99 years old, the Lord appeared to him, saying, "I am God Almighty. Live in My presence and be devout.
I will establish My covenant between Me and you, and I will multiply you greatly."
Then Abram fell to the ground, and God spoke with him:
"As for Me, My covenant is with you, and you will become the father of many nations.
Your name will no longer be Abram, but your name will be Abraham, for I will make you the father of many nations.
I will make you extremely fruitful and will make nations and kings come from you.
I will keep My covenant between Me and you, and your offspring after you throughout their generations, as an everlasting covenant to be your God and the [God] of your offspring after you.
And to you and your offspring after you I will give the land where you are residing-all the land of Canaan-as an eternal possession, and I will be their God."
God also said to Abraham, "As for you, you and your offspring after you throughout their generations are to keep My covenant.
This is My covenant, which you are to keep, between Me and you and your offspring after you: Every one of your males must be circumcised.
You must circumcise the flesh of your foreskin to serve as a sign of the covenant between Me and you.
Throughout your generations, every male among you at eight days old is to be circumcised. This includes a slave born in your house and one purchased with money from any foreigner. The one who is not your offspring,
a slave born in your house, as well as one purchased with money, must be circumcised. My covenant will be in your flesh as an everlasting covenant.
If any male is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that man will be cut off from his people; he has broken My covenant."
God said to Abraham, "As for your wife Sarai, do not call her Sarai, for Sarah will be her name.
I will bless her; indeed, I will give you a son by her. I will bless her, and she will produce nations; kings of peoples will come from her."
Abraham fell to the ground, laughed, and thought in his heart, "Can a child be born to a hundred-year-old man? Can Sarah, a ninety-year-old woman, give birth?"
So Abraham said to God, "If only Ishmael could live in Your presence!"
But God said, "No. Your wife Sarah will bear you a son, and you will name him Isaac. I will confirm My covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his offspring after him.
As for Ishmael, I have heard you. I will certainly bless him; I will make him fruitful and will multiply him greatly. He will father 12 tribal leaders, and I will make him into a great nation.
But I will confirm My covenant with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to you at this time next year."
When He finished talking with him, God withdrew from Abraham.
Then Abraham took his son Ishmael and all the slaves born in his house or purchased with his money-every male among the members of Abraham's household-and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskin on that very day, just as God had said to him.
Abraham was 99 years old when the flesh of his foreskin was circumcised,
and his son Ishmael was 13 years old when the flesh of his foreskin was circumcised.
On that same day Abraham and his son Ishmael were circumcised.
And all the men of his household-both slaves born in his house and those purchased with money from a foreigner-were circumcised with him.
Then the Lord appeared to Abraham at the oaks of Mamre while he was sitting in the entrance of his tent during the heat of the day.
He looked up, and he saw three men standing near him. When he saw them, he ran from the entrance of the tent to meet them and bowed to the ground.
Then he said, "My lord, if I have found favor in your sight, please do not go on past your servant.
Let a little water be brought, that you may wash your feet and rest yourselves under the tree.
I will bring a bit of bread so that you may strengthen yourselves. This is why you have passed your servant's [way]. Later, you can continue on." "Yes," they replied, "do as you have said."
So Abraham hurried into the tent and said to Sarah, "Quick! Knead three measures of fine flour and make bread."
Meanwhile, Abraham ran to the herd and got a tender, choice calf. He gave it to a young man, who hurried to prepare it.
Then Abraham took curds and milk, and the calf that he had prepared, and set [them] before the men. He served them as they ate under the tree.
"Where is your wife Sarah?" they asked him. "There, in the tent," he answered.
The Lord said, "I will certainly come back to you in about a year's time, and your wife Sarah will have a son!" Now Sarah was listening at the entrance of the tent behind him.
Abraham and Sarah were old and getting on in years. Sarah had passed the age of childbearing.
So she laughed to herself: "After I have become shriveled up and my lord is old, will I have delight?"
But the Lord asked Abraham, "Why did Sarah laugh, saying, 'Can I really have a baby when I'm old?'
Is anything impossible for the Lord? At the appointed time I will come back to you, and in about a year she will have a son."
Sarah denied it. "I did not laugh," she said, because she was afraid. But He replied, "No, you did laugh."
The men got up from there and looked out over Sodom, and Abraham was walking with them to see them off.
Then the Lord said, "Should I hide from Abraham what I am about to do?
Abraham is to become a great and powerful nation, and all the nations of the earth will be blessed through him.
For I have chosen him so that he will command his children and his house after him to keep the way of the Lord by doing what is right and just. This is how the Lord will fulfill to Abraham what He promised him."
Then the Lord said, "The outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is immense, and their sin is extremely serious.
I will go down to see if what they have done justifies the cry that has come up to Me. If not, I will find out."
The men turned from there and went toward Sodom while Abraham remained standing before the Lord.
Abraham stepped forward and said, "Will You really sweep away the righteous with the wicked?
What if there are 50 righteous people in the city? Will You really sweep it away instead of sparing the place for the sake of the 50 righteous people who are in it?
You could not possibly do such a thing: to kill the righteous with the wicked, treating the righteous and the wicked alike. You could not possibly do that! Won't the Judge of all the earth do what is just?"
The Lord said, "If at Sodom I find 50 righteous people in the city, I will spare the whole place for their sake."
Then Abraham answered, "Since I have ventured to speak to the Lord-even though I am dust and ashes-
suppose the 50 righteous lack five. Will you destroy the whole city for lack of five?" He replied, "I will not destroy [it] if I find 45 there."
Then he spoke to Him again, "Suppose 40 are found there?" He answered, "I will not do [it] on account of 40."
Then he said, "Let the Lord not be angry, and I will speak further. Suppose 30 are found there?" He answered, "I will not do [it] if I find 30 there."
Then he said, "Since I have ventured to speak to the Lord, suppose 20 are found there?" He replied, "I will not destroy [it] on account of 20."
Then he said, "Let the Lord not be angry, and I will speak one more time. Suppose 10 are found there?" He answered, "I will not destroy [it] on account of 10."
When the Lord had finished speaking with Abraham, He departed, and Abraham returned to his place.