God's Case against Jacob's Heirs

1 Ephraim chasesa the wind and pursues the east wind. He continually multiplies lies and violence. He makes a covenant with Assyria, and olive oil is carried to Egypt.
References for Hosea 12:1
    • a 12:1 - Or feeds on, or tends
      2 The Lord also has a dispute with Judah. He is about to punish Jacob according to his ways; He will repay him based on his actions.
      3 In the womb he grasped his brother's heel,b and as an adult he wrestled with God.c
      References for Hosea 12:3
        • b 12:3 - Gn 25:26; 27:36
        • c 12:3 - Gn 32:24-28
          4 Jacob struggled with the Angel and prevailed; he wept and sought His favor. He found himd at Bethel, and there He spoke with him.ef
          References for Hosea 12:4
            • d 12:4 - Or Him
            • e 12:4 - LXX, Syr; MT reads us
            • f 12:4 - Gn 28:10-22; 35:1-14
              5 Yahweh is the God of Hosts; Yahweh is His name.
              6 But you must return to your God. Maintain love and justice, and always put your hope in God.
              7 A merchant loves to extort with dishonest scales in his hands.
              8 But Ephraim says: "How rich I have become; I made it all myself. In all my earnings, no one can find any crime in me that I can be punished for!"g
              References for Hosea 12:8
                • g 12:8 - Lit crime which is sin

                  Judgment on Apostate Israel

                  9 I have been the Lord your God ever sinceh the land of Egypt. I will make you live in tents again, as in the festival days.
                  References for Hosea 12:9
                    • h 12:9 - LXX reads God who brought you out of
                      10 I spoke through the prophets and granted many visions; I gave parables through the prophets.
                      11 Since Gilead is full of evil, they will certainly come to nothing. They sacrifice bulls in Gilgal; even their altars will be like heaps of rocks on the furrows of a field.

                      Further Indictment of Jacob's Heirs

                      12 Jacob fled to the land of Aram. Israel worked to earn a wife; he tended flocks for a wife.i
                      References for Hosea 12:12
                          13 The Lord brought Israel from Egypt by a prophet, and Israel was tended by a prophet.
                          14 Ephraim has provoked bitter anger, so his Lord will leave his bloodguilt on him and repay him for his contempt.