Lament over Jerusalem


1 Howa she sits alone,b the city [once] crowded with people! She who was great among the nations has become like a widow. The princess among the provinces has become a slave.

References for Lamentations 1:1

    • a 1:1 - The stanzas in Lm 1-4 form an acrostic.
    • b 1:1 - Lm 3:28


      2 She weeps aloud during the night, with tears on her cheeks. There is no one to offer her comfort, [not one] from all her lovers.c All her friends have betrayed her; they have become her enemies.

      References for Lamentations 1:2

        • c 1:2 - Jerusalem's political allies; Jr 22:20-22; Ezk 23


          3 Judah has gone into exile followingd affliction and harsh slavery; she lives among the nations but finds no place to rest.e All her pursuers have overtaken her in narrow places.

          References for Lamentations 1:3

            • d 1:3 - Or because of
            • e 1:3 - Dt 28:65; Ps 116:7


              4 The roads to Zion mourn, for no one comes to the appointed festivals.f All her gates are deserted; her priests groan, her young women grieve, and she herself is bitter.

              References for Lamentations 1:4

                • f 1:4 - Dt 16:16; 2 Ch 8:13


                  5 Her adversaries have become [her] masters;g her enemies are at ease,h for the Lord has made her suffer because of her many transgressions. Her children have gone away as captives before the adversary.

                  References for Lamentations 1:5

                    • g 1:5 - Dt 28:13,44
                    • h 1:5 - Jb 3:26; 12:6; Jr 12:1


                      6 All her splendori has vanished from Daughter Zion.j Her leaders are like stags that find no pasture; they walk away exhausted before the hunter.

                      References for Lamentations 1:6

                        • i 1:6 - Ezk 27:10
                        • j 1:6 - Lm 2:1,4,8; 4:22


                          7 During the days of her affliction and homelessnessk Jerusalem remembers all her precious belongings that were [hers] in days of old. When her people fell into the adversary's hand, she had no one to help. The adversaries looked at her, laughing over her downfall.

                          References for Lamentations 1:7

                            • k 1:7 - Lm 3:19; Isa 58:7


                              8 Jerusalem has sinned grievously; therefore, she has become an object of scorn.l All who honored her [now] despise her, for they have seen her nakedness. She herself groans and turns away.

                              References for Lamentations 1:8

                                • l 1:8 - Or become impure


                                  9 Her uncleanness [stains] her skirts.m She never considered her end. Her downfall was astonishing; there was no one to comfort her. Lord, look on my affliction, for the enemy triumphs!

                                  References for Lamentations 1:9

                                    • m 1:9 - Jr 13:22,26; Nah 3:5


                                      10 The adversary has seized all her precious belongings. She has even seen the nations enter her sanctuary- those You had forbidden to enter Your assembly.n

                                      References for Lamentations 1:10

                                        • n 1:10 - Dt 23:3; Neh 13:1-3; Ezk 44:9


                                          11 All her people groan while they search for bread. They have traded their precious belongings for food in order to stay alive. Lord, look and see how I have become despised.

                                          References for Lamentations 1:11


                                              12 Is this nothing to you, all you who pass by?o Look and see! Is there any pain like mine, which was dealt out to me, which the Lord made [me] suffer on the day of His burning anger?

                                              References for Lamentations 1:12


                                                  13 He sent fire from on highp into my bones; He made it descend.qr He spread a net for my feets and turned me back. He made me desolate, sick all day long.

                                                  References for Lamentations 1:13

                                                    • p 1:13 - Gn 19:24; Hs 8:14; Am 1:4-2:5
                                                    • q 1:13 - DSS, LXX; MT reads bones, and it prevailed against them
                                                    • r 1:13 - Jb 30:30; Jr 20:9
                                                    • s 1:13 - Ps 35:7; Ezk 12:13; Hs 7:12


                                                      14 My transgressions have been formed into a yoke,tu fastened together by His hand; they have been placed on my neck, and the Lord has broken my strength. He has handed me over to those I cannot withstand.

                                                      References for Lamentations 1:14

                                                        • t 1:14 - Some Hb mss, LXX read He kept watch over my transgressions
                                                        • u 1:14 - Or The yoke of my transgressions is bound; Hb obscure


                                                          15 The Lord has rejectedv all the mighty men within me. He has summoned an armyw against me to crush my young warriors. The Lord has trampledx Virgin Daughter Judahy [like grapes] in a winepress.

                                                          References for Lamentations 1:15

                                                            • v 1:15 - Ps 119:118
                                                            • w 1:15 - Or has announced an appointed time
                                                            • x 1:15 - Isa 63:3
                                                            • y 1:15 - Lm 2:2,5


                                                              16 I weep because of these things; my eyes flowz with tears.{ For there is no one nearby to comfort [me], no one to keep me alive. My children are desolate because the enemy has prevailed.

                                                              References for Lamentations 1:16

                                                                • z 1:16 - Lit my eye, my eye flows
                                                                • { 1:16 - Lm 2:11,18; 3:48-49; Jr 9:1,18


                                                                  17 Zion stretches out her hands; there is no one to comfort her. The Lord has issued a decree against Jacob that his neighbors should be his adversaries. Jerusalem has become something impure| among them.

                                                                  References for Lamentations 1:17

                                                                    • | 1:17 - Ezk 7:19-20


                                                                      18 The Lord is in the right, for I have rebelled against His command.} Listen, all you people; look at my pain. My young men and women have gone into captivity.

                                                                      References for Lamentations 1:18


                                                                          19 I called to my lovers, but they betrayed me. My priests and elders perished in the city while searching for food to keep themselves alive.

                                                                          References for Lamentations 1:19


                                                                              20 Lord, see how I am in distress. I am churning within;~ my heart is broken, for I have been very rebellious. Outside, the sword takes the children; inside, there is death.€

                                                                              References for Lamentations 1:20

                                                                                • ~ 1:20 - Jb 30:27
                                                                                •  1:20 - Lit is turned within me
                                                                                • € 1:20 - Dt 32:25; Ezk 7:15


                                                                                  21 People have heard me groaning, but there is no one to comfort me. All my enemies have heard of my misfortune; they are glad that You have caused [it]. Bring on the day You have announced, so that they may become like me.

                                                                                  References for Lamentations 1:21


                                                                                      22 Let all their wickedness come before You, and deal with them as You have dealt with me because of all my transgressions. For my groans are many, and I am sick at heart.

                                                                                      References for Lamentations 1:22