Paul, a slave of Christ Jesus, called as an apostlea and singled out for God's good news-
which He promised long ago through His prophets in the Holy Scriptures-
concerning His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord, who was a descendant of Davidb according to the flesh
and was established as the powerful Son of God by the resurrection from the dead according to the Spirit of holiness.c5
We have received grace and apostleship through Him to bring aboutd the obedience of faithe among all the nations,f on behalf of His name,
including yourselves who are also Jesus Christ's by calling:
To all who are in Rome, loved by God, called as saints. Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of you because the news of your faithg is being reported in all the world.
For God, whom I serve with my spirit in [telling] the good news about His Son, is my witness that I constantly mention you,
always asking in my prayers that if it is somehow in God's will, I may now at last succeed in coming to you.
For I want very much to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift to strengthen you,
that is, to be mutually encouraged by each other's faith, both yours and mine.
Now I want you to know,h brothers, that I often planned to come to you (but was prevented until now) in order that I might have a fruitful ministryi among you, just as among the rest of the Gentiles.
I am obligated both to Greeks and barbarians,j both to the wise and the foolish.
So I am eager to preach the good news to you also who are in Rome.
For I am not ashamed of the gospel,k because it is God's power for salvation to everyone who believes, first to the Jew, and also to the Greek.
For in it God's righteousness is revealed from faith to faith,l just as it is written: The righteous will live by faith. mn
For God's wrath is revealed from heaven against all godlessness and unrighteousness of people who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth,
since what can be knowno about God is evident among them, because God has shown it to them.
From the creation of the world His invisible attributes, that is, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what He has made. As a result, peoplep are without excuse.
For though they knew God, they did not glorify Him as God or show gratitude. Instead, their thinking became nonsense, and their senseless mindsq were darkened.
Claiming to be wise, they became fools
and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling mortal man, birds, four-footed animals, and reptiles.r24
Therefore God delivered them over in the cravings of their hearts to sexual impurity, so that their bodies were degraded among themselves.
They exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served something created instead of the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.
This is why God delivered them over to degrading passions. For even their females exchanged natural sexual intercourses for what is unnatural.
The males in the same way also left natural sexual intercourset with females and were inflamed in their lust for one another. Males committed shameless acts with males and received in their own personsu the appropriate penalty for their perversion.v28
And because they did not think it worthwhile to have God in their knowledge, God delivered them over to a worthless mind to do what is morally wrong.
They are filled with all unrighteousness,w evil, greed, and wickedness. They are full of envy, murder, disputes, deceit, and malice. They are gossips,
slanderers, God-haters, arrogant, proud, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents,
undiscerning, untrustworthy, unloving,x and unmerciful.
Although they know full well God's just sentence-that those who practice such things deserve to diey-they not only do them, but even applaudz others who practice them.