1 Now faith is [the] substantiating of things hoped for, [the] conviction of things not seen.

References for Hebrews 11:1

    • a 11:1 - Or 'assurance,' 'firm conviction:' see ch. 3.14.
      2 For in [the power of] this the elders have obtained testimony.
      3 By faith we apprehend that the worlds were framed by [the] word of God, so that that which is seen should not take its origin from things which appear.
      4 By faith Abel offered to God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained testimony of being righteous, God bearing testimony to his gifts, and by it, having died, he yet speaks.

      References for Hebrews 11:4

        • b 11:4 - He alludes. I judge, to the voice which called to God from the ground (Gen. 4.10), but supposes the voice still heard as witnessing to Abel's faith.
          5 By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death; and was not found, because God had translated him; for before [his] translation he has the testimony that he had pleased God.

          References for Hebrews 11:5

            • c 11:5 - The LXX so translated into Greek the Hebrew expression 'walked with God' in Gen. 5.24.
              6 But without faith [it is] impossible to please [him]. For he that draws near to God must believe that he is, and [that] he is a rewarder of them who seek him out.
              7 By faith, Noah, oracularly warned concerning things not yet seen, moved with fear, prepared an ark for the saving of his house; by which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which [is] according to faith.
              8 By faith Abraham, being called, obeyed to go out into the place which he was to receive for an inheritance, and went out, not knowing where he was going.
              9 By faith he sojourned as a stranger in the land of promise as a foreign country, having dwelt in tents with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with [him] of the same promise;

              References for Hebrews 11:9

                • d 11:9 - i.e. not his own.
                  10 for he waited for the city which has foundations, of which God is [the] artificer and constructor.
                  11 By faith also Sarah herself received strength for [the] conception of seed, and [that] beyond a seasonable age; since she counted him faithful who promised.
                  12 Wherefore also there have been born of one, and that of one become dead, even as the stars of heaven in multitude, and as the countless sand which [is] by the sea shore.
                  13 All these died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them from afar off and embraced [them], and confessed that they were strangers and sojourners on the earth.

                  References for Hebrews 11:13

                    • e 11:13 - Or 'according to faith;' having only the promise and not the fulfilment.
                    • f 11:13 - Or 'land.'
                      14 For they who say such things shew clearly that they seek [their] country.
                      15 And if they had called to mind that from whence they went out, they had had opportunity to have returned;
                      16 but now they seek a better, that is, a heavenly; wherefore God is not ashamed of them, to be called their God; for he has prepared for them a city.
                      17 By faith Abraham, [when] tried, offered up Isaac, and he who had received to himself the promises offered up his only begotten [son],

                      References for Hebrews 11:17

                        • g 11:17 - The Greek implies the will or action of the person receiving. It is used only here and in Acts 28.7. Publius received, 'took,' Paul and his company into his house. It has the sense of taking on oneself physically, or as a debt or responsibility. Abraham's own mind had taken up and appropriated the promises, and yet he gave up Isaac. It was not merely they were given and taken away, with which he had nothing to do; but he had adopted them by faith in his heart, and trusted God enough to give them up according to flesh.
                          18 as to whom it had been said, In Isaac shall thy seed be called:

                          References for Hebrews 11:18

                            • h 11:18 - See Gen. 21.12.
                              19 counting that God [was] able to raise [him] even from among [the] dead, whence also he received him in a figure.

                              References for Hebrews 11:19

                                • i 11:19 - The force of the Greek, thus applied, is to get back what one had, or what belonged to one, when it might have seemed lost for ever, as Matt. 25.27. The sense I think quite certain in its application to Isaac's sacrifice. The aorist is constantly used in this chapter historically.
                                  20 By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things to come.
                                  21 By faith Jacob [when] dying blessed each of the sons of Joseph, and worshipped on the top of his staff.

                                  References for Hebrews 11:21

                                    • j 11:21 - This follows the LXX translation of Gen. 47.31.
                                      22 By faith Joseph [when] dying called to mind the going forth of the sons of Israel, and gave commandment concerning his bones.

                                      References for Hebrews 11:22

                                        • k 11:22 - Lit. 'ending life.'
                                          23 By faith Moses, being born, was hid three months by his parents, because they saw the child beautiful; and they did not fear the injunction of the king.
                                          24 By faith Moses, when he had become great, refused to be called son of Pharaoh's daughter;
                                          25 choosing rather to suffer affliction along with the people of God than to have [the] temporary pleasure of sin;
                                          26 esteeming the reproach of the Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egypt, for he had respect to the recompense.
                                          27 By faith he left Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king; for he persevered, as seeing him who is invisible.

                                          References for Hebrews 11:27

                                            • l 11:27 - These are aorists, but in English the present participle is joined to the perfect tense as characterizing the action. 'He refused ... choosing;' 'he refused ... having chosen' would make a different time of it, not the same. In Greek all is referred to the time of speaking.
                                              28 By faith he celebrated the passover and the sprinkling of the blood, that the destroyer of the firstborn might not touch them.

                                              References for Hebrews 11:28

                                                • m 11:28 - Here and ver. 17, as to the offering up Isaac, the verbs are in the perfect; this is remarkable. The other facts are generally passing facts, part of the whole history; these are of standing significance, either figuratively setting the believer on a new ground, or viewed as continued till the time of the epistle: 'by faith Abraham has offered,' 'by faith he has celebrated;' only this is not possible in English. It was not external continuance, for the blood sprinkling was only once.
                                                  29 By faith they passed through the Red sea as through dry land; of which the Egyptians having made trial were swallowed up.
                                                  30 By faith the walls of Jericho fell, having been encircled for seven days.
                                                  31 By faith Rahab the harlot did not perish along with the unbelieving, having received the spies in peace.

                                                  References for Hebrews 11:31

                                                      32 And what more do I say? For the time would fail me telling of Gideon, and Barak, and Samson, and Jephthah, and David and Samuel, and of the prophets:
                                                      33 who by faith overcame kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped lions' mouths,

                                                      References for Hebrews 11:33

                                                        • o 11:33 - i.e. 'what was promised.'
                                                          34 quenched [the] power of fire, escaped [the] edge of the sword, became strong out of weakness, became mighty in war, made [the] armies of strangers give way.
                                                          35 Women received their dead again by resurrection; and others were tortured, not having accepted deliverance, that they might get a better resurrection;

                                                          References for Hebrews 11:35

                                                            • p 11:35 - Perhaps 'beaten [to death].'
                                                              36 and others underwent trial of mockings and scourgings, yea, and of bonds and imprisonment.
                                                              37 They were stoned, were sawn asunder, were tempted, died by the death of the sword; they went about in sheepskins, in goatskins, destitute, afflicted, evil treated,
                                                              38 (of whom the world was not worthy,) wandering in deserts and mountains, and [in] dens and caverns of the earth.
                                                              39 And these all, having obtained witness through faith, did not receive the promise,
                                                              40 God having foreseen some better thing for us, that they should not be made perfect without us.