1 I say [the] truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience bearing witness with me in [the] Holy Spirit,
2 that I have great grief and uninterrupted pain in my heart,
3 for I have wished, I myself, to be a curse from the Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen, according to flesh;

References for Romans 9:3

    • a 9:3 - I apprehend, in the apostle's mind the phrase 'for my brethren' is connected with both 'pain in my heart' and 'a curse from Christ;' he parenthetically states how far his heart had gone for Israel, and then continues the phrase. This want of strict continuation of grammatical structure is very common with the apostle from the ardour of his style, and only adds force to what he says. He had loved them as much as Moses. (Ex. 32.32.) His pain was continuous: but the wish, 'to be a curse,' was like that of Moses, a moment's earnest appeal, as beside himself.
      4 who are Israelites; whose [is] the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the law-giving, and the service, and the promises;

      References for Romans 9:4

        • b 9:4 - As ch. 8.23.
        • c 9:4 - As latreuo. See Note l to Matt. 4.10.
          5 whose [are] the fathers; and of whom, as according to flesh, [is] the Christ, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

          References for Romans 9:5

            • d 9:5 - 'Who is over all' is emphatic: he exists and subsists as such. It may be translated also 'is' or 'exists God over all.'
              6 Not however as though the word of God had failed; for not all [are] Israel which [are] of Israel;
              7 nor because they are seed of Abraham [are] all children: but, In Isaac shall a seed be called to thee.

              References for Romans 9:7

                • e 9:7 - See Gen. 21.12.
                  8 That is, [they that are] the children of the flesh, these [are] not the children of God; but the children of the promise are reckoned as seed.
                  9 For this word [is] of promise, According to this time I will come, and there shall be a son to Sarah.

                  References for Romans 9:9

                    • f 9:9 - See Gen. 18.10.
                    • g 9:9 - The apostle's object is, not to state what the word of promise is, but that the word he quotes, on which all depended, is a matter of promise.
                      10 And not only [that], but Rebecca having conceived by one, Isaac our father,
                      11 [the children] indeed being not yet born, or having done anything good or worthless (that the purpose of God according to election might abide, not of works, but of him that calls),
                      12 it was said to her, The greater shall serve the less:

                      References for Romans 9:12

                        • h 9:12 - See Gen. 25.23.
                          13 according as it is written, I have loved Jacob, and I have hated Esau.

                          References for Romans 9:13

                            • i 9:13 - See Mal. 1.2.
                              14 What shall we say then? [Is there] unrighteousness with God? Far be the thought.
                              15 For he says to Moses, I will shew mercy to whom I will shew mercy, and I will feel compassion for whom I will feel compassion.

                              References for Romans 9:15

                                • j 9:15 - See Ex. 33.19.
                                  16 So then [it is] not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shews mercy.
                                  17 For the scripture says to Pharaoh, For this very thing I have raised thee up from amongst [men], that I might thus shew in thee my power, and so that my name should be declared in all the earth.

                                  References for Romans 9:17

                                    • k 9:17 - See Ex. 9.16.
                                    • l 9:17 - I have said 'that I might thus' because the word translated 'that' does not signify the ultimate end, but the means or way of doing it. The same word is translated 'so that' in the next clause.
                                      18 So then, to whom he will he shews mercy, and whom he will he hardens.
                                      19 Thou wilt say to me then, Why does he yet find fault? for who resists his purpose?
                                      20 Aye, but thou, O man, who art *thou* that answerest again to God? Shall the thing formed say to him that has formed it, Why hast thou made me thus?
                                      21 Or has not the potter authority over the clay, out of the same lump to make one vessel to honour, and another to dishonour?
                                      22 And if God, minded to shew his wrath and to make his power known, endured with much long-suffering vessels of wrath fitted for destruction;
                                      23 and that he might make known the riches of his glory upon vessels of mercy, which he had before prepared for glory,
                                      24 us, whom he has also called, not only from amongst [the] Jews, but also from amongst [the] nations?
                                      25 As he says also in Hosea, I will call not-my-people My people; and the-not-beloved Beloved.

                                      References for Romans 9:25

                                        • m 9:25 - See Hos. 2.23.
                                          26 And it shall be, in the place where it was said to them, *Ye* [are] not my people, there shall they be called Sons of [the] living God.

                                          References for Romans 9:26

                                            • n 9:26 - See Hos. 1.10.
                                              27 But Esaias cries concerning Israel, Should the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, the remnant shall be saved:

                                              References for Romans 9:27

                                                • o 9:27 - See Isa. 10.22,23.
                                                  28 for [he] is bringing the matter to an end, and [cutting [it] short in righteousness; because] a cutting short of the matter will [the] Lord accomplish upon the earth.
                                                  29 And according as Esaias said before, Unless [the] Lord of hosts had left us a seed, we had been as Sodom, and made like even as Gomorrha.

                                                  References for Romans 9:29

                                                    • p 9:29 - See Isa. 1.9.
                                                      30 What then shall we say? That [they of the] nations, who did not follow after righteousness, have attained righteousness, but [the] righteousness that is on the principle of faith.

                                                      References for Romans 9:30

                                                        • q 9:30 - As ch. 5.21, dikaiosune, and so to ch. 10.10.
                                                          31 But Israel, pursuing after a law of righteousness, has not attained to [that] law.
                                                          32 Wherefore? Because [it was] not on the principle of faith, but as of works. They have stumbled at the stumblingstone,

                                                          References for Romans 9:32

                                                            • r 9:32 - 'As of works.' Ek, here translated 'of,' is translated 'on the principle of' in chs. 1.17; 5.1; 9.32. But this sense is clearer here in having simply 'of' after the 'as,' and the sentence less encumbered.
                                                            • s 9:32 - Christ is the stumblingstone, as Paul goes on to explain.
                                                              33 according as it is written, Behold, I place in Zion a stone of stumbling and rock of offence: and he that believes on him shall not be ashamed.

                                                              References for Romans 9:33

                                                                • t 9:33 - See Isa. 8.14 and 28.16.