The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is committed to him ( Acts 17:31 ; John 5:22 John 5:27 ; Revelation 1:7 ). "It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorious righteousness of his work in both respects."
The persons to be judged are, (1) the whole race of Adam without a single exception ( Matthew 25:31-46 ; 1 Corinthians 15:51 1 Corinthians 15:52 ; Revelation 20:11-15 ); and (2) the fallen angels ( 2 Peter 2:4 ; Jude 1:6 ).
The rule of judgment is the standard of God's law as revealed to men, the heathen by the law as written on their hearts ( Luke 12:47 Luke 12:48 ; Romans 2:12-16 ); the Jew who "sinned in the law shall be judged by the law" ( Romans 2:12 ); the Christian enjoying the light of revelation, by the will of God as made known to him ( Matthew 11:20-24 ; John 3:19 ). Then the secrets of all hearts will be brought to light ( 1 Corinthians 4:5 ; Luke 8:17 ; Luke 12:2 Luke 12:3 ) to vindicate the justice of the sentence pronounced.
As the Scriptures represent the final judgment "as certain [Eccl 11:9 ], universal [ 2 Corinthians 5:10 ], righteous [ Romans 2:5 ], decisive [ 1 Corinthians 15:52 ], and eternal as to its consequences [ Hebrews 6:2 ], let us be concerned for the welfare of our immortal interests, flee to the refuge set before us, improve our precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him in peace."