a grain much cultivated in Egypt ( Exodus 9:31 ) and in Palestine ( Leviticus 27:16 ; Deuteronomy 8:8 ). It was usually the food of horses ( 1 Kings 4:28 ). Barley bread was used by the poorer people (Judg. 7:13 ; 2 Kings 4:42 ). Barley of the first crop was ready for the harvest by the time of the Passover, in the middle of April ( Ruth 1:22 ; 2 Sam 21:9 ). Mention is made of barley-meal ( Numbers 5:15 ). Our Lord fed five thousand with "five barley loaves and two small fishes" ( John 6:9 ).
is one of the most important of the cereal grains, and the most hardy of them all. It was grown by the Hebrews, ( Leviticus 27:16 ; 8:8 ; Ruth 2:17 ) etc., who used it for baking into bread chiefly among the poor, ( Judges 7:13 ; 2 Kings 4:42 ; John 6:9 John 6:13 ) and as fodder for horses. ( 1 Kings 4:28 ) The barley harvest, ( Ruth 1:22 ; 2:23 ; 2 Samuel 21:9;10 2 Samuel 10 ) takes place in Palestine in March and April, and in the hilly district as late as May. It always precedes the wheat harvest, in some places by a week, in others by fully three weeks. In Egypt the barley is about a month earlier than the wheat; whence its total destruction by the hail storm. ( Exodus 9:31 )
(1) In the Bible, as in modern times, barley was a characteristic product of Palestine--"a land of wheat and barley, and vines and fig-trees," etc. (Deuteronomy 8:8), the failure of whose crop was a national disaster (Joel 1:11). It was, and is, grown chiefly as provender for horses and asses (1 Kings 4:28), oats being practically unknown, but it was, as it now is, to some extent, the food of the poor in country districts (Ruth 2:17; 2 Kings 4:42; John 6:9,13). Probably this is the meaning of the dream of the Midianite concerning Gideon:
"Behold, I dreamed a dream; and, lo, a cake of barley bread tumbled into the camp of Midian, and came unto the tent, and smote it so that it fell, and turned it upside down, so that the tent lay flat. And his fellow answered and said, This is nothing else save the sword of Gideon, the son of Joash, a man of Israel" (Judges 7:13 f). Here the barley loaf is type of the peasant origin of Gideon's army and perhaps, too, of his own lowly condition.
Barley was (Ezekiel 4:9) one of the ingredients from which the prophet was to make bread and "eat it as barley cakes" after having baked it under repulsive conditions (Ezekiel 4:12), as a sign to the people. The false prophetesses (Ezekiel 13:19) are said to have profaned God among the people for "handfuls of barley and for pieces of bread."
Barley was also used in the \ORDEAL OF JEALOUSY\ (s. v.). It was with five barley loaves and two fishes that our Lord fed the five thousand (John 6:9,10).
(2) Several varieties of barley are grown in Palestine The Hordeum distichum or two-rowed barley is probably the nearest to the original stock, but Hordeum tetrastichum, with grains in four rows, and Hordeum hexastichum, with six rows, are also common and ancient; the last is found depicted upon Egyptian monuments.
Barley is always sown in the autumn, after the "early rains," and the barley harvest, which for any given locality precedes the wheat harvest (Exodus 9:31 f), begins near Jericho in April--or even March--but in the hill country of Palestine is not concluded until the end of May or beginning of June.
The barley harvest was a well-marked season of the year (see TIME) and the barley-corn was a well-known measure of length.
See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
E. W. G. Masterman
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