Old Testament Significance. Appreciation for beauty is a consistent theme throughout the Bible. The Bible also has a full-orbed doctrine of beauty. Thus, beauty for beauty's sake is not addressed. The Old Testament Scriptures are particularly appreciative of nature. God announced that creation was good (Gen. 1). The psalms reveal an appreciation for God's handiwork ( Psalm 8 ; 19:1 ; 29 ; 104 ). God made his world good by causing the springs to gush forth in the valleys, the grass to grow for the cattle, and the moon to mark the seasons. The Hebrew mind that reflected on God's goodness in nature was in contrast to the pagan mind-set of the surrounding nations, which often went so far as to declare that the world was totally evil.
Human Attractiveness. Both women and men are described as attractive. Human beings at times used cosmetics to make themselves more beautiful ( Isa 3:18-24 ). Sarah ( Gen 12:11 ), Rebekah ( Gen 24:16 ), Abigail ( 1 Sam 25:3 ), Rachel, Abishag, Bathsheba, and Esther are singled out for their beauty. Yet physical beauty was secondary to piety and resourcefulness ( Prov 31:10-31 ; also see 1 Tim 2:9-10 ; 1 Peter 3:3-5 ). The writer of the Song of Solomon portrays his love for his bride as beautiful. Though the Hebrews did not exalt the human form as did the ancient Greeks, some men are referred to as exceedingly handsome: David ( 1 Sa 16:12 ), Absalom ( 2 Sa 14:25 ), Daniel ( Da 1:15 ), Joseph, Jonathan, and even Moses as a child ( Exod 1 ). Clothing also had esthetic appeal (see Gen 41:42 ; 45:22 ; Exod 26:36 ; 28:2 ; Rev 3:4 ).
Divine Descriptions Scripture presents an implicit theology of beauty as a concomitant of divine creativity and eschatological redemption. The Lord's favor is beautiful and his hopeful promises offer "beauty for ashes" for his people ( Psalm 90:17 ; Isa 61:3 ). God is a diadem of beauty for the faithful Israelite remnant ( Isa 28:5 ).
God is a God of glory, and his Shekinah glory is ever present among his people ( Exod 16:7 ; 24:16 ; 40:34 ; Lev 9:6 ; Num 14:10 ; Deut 5:24 ). The promised Messiah was prophesied to be a beautiful king ( Isa 33:17 ). Yet the prophet also said that the suffering Messiah would have "no beauty or majesty to attract us to him" ( Isa 53:2 ).
Johannine Significance It should hardly surprise us that beauty plays such an important role in the Bible's eschatological drama. The Book of Revelation avoids anthropomorphic representations of God. God is described in undeniable splendor. The concept of beauty thus is more significant than simple attractiveness. Beauty is similar, if not synonymous, with God's glory. The one who sits on the throne of the universe "had the appearance of jasper and a rainbow, resembling an emerald, encircled the throne" ( Rev 4:3 ). The Holy City, the final estate prepared for God's people, is gloriously adorned as a bride for her husband ( Rev 21:2 ).
Pauline Significance In the present period, believers are exhorted to live in a manner that will make the teaching of the Lord beautiful and attractive before unbelievers ( Tit 2:10 ). Those who preach the gospel can be described as beautiful ( Rom 10:15 ).
David S. Dockery
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The space allotted to this topic allows liberty only for the statement of two problems to students of the Bible. They should give distinct attention to the interblending of aesthetics with ethics in the Scripture. They should observe the extent and meaning of aesthetics in Nature.
1. Aesthetics in Scripture:
That the Bible is an ethical book is evident. Righteousness in all the relations of man as a moral being is the key to its inspiration, the guiding light to correct understanding of its utterance. But it is everywhere inspired and writ in an atmosphere of aesthetics. Study will bring out this fact from Genesis to Revelation. The first pair make their appearance in a garden where grew "every tree that is pleasant to the sight" (Genesis 2:9), and the last vision for the race is an abode in a city whose gates are of pearl and streets of gold (Revelation 21:21). Such is the imagery that from beginning to end is pictured as the home of ethics--at first in its untried innocence and at last in its stalwart righteousness. The problem will be to observe the intermingling of these two elements--the beautiful and the good--in the whole Scripture range. A few texts will set before us this kinship and then the Bible student can detect it as he reads. - "One thing have I asked of Yahweh, that will I seek after:
That I may dwell in the house of Yahweh all the days of my life, To behold the beauty of Yahweh, And to inquire in his temple" (Psalms 27:4).
"For all the gods of the peoples are idols; But Yahweh made the heavens. Honor and majesty are before him:
Strength and beauty are in his sanctuary" (Psalms 96:5,6). + If we catch the spirit set forth in such and similar Psalms, we can use it as a magnetic needle to detect its like wherever we shall read:
and we shall find that like in abundance. It is only necessary to turn to the directions given for making the Ark of the Covenant and its encircling tabernacle, and the decorations of the priests that were to minister in the worship of Yahweh in the ceremonies described, as given in Exodus 25, to see that every resource of Israel was brought to bear to render ark and tabernacle and their service beautiful. One will find in a concordance half a column of references under the word "Ark" and a column and a half under the word "Tabernacle." By looking up these references one can realize how much care was spent to give and preserve to these aids to worship the attractiveness of beauty.
In 1 Chronicles 15 and 16 we have an account of David's bringing in the Ark of the Covenant into his own city to rest in a tent he had provided for it. On this occasion a demonstration was made with all the aesthetics of which the music of that day was capable. "And David spake to the chief of the Levites to appoint their brethren the singers, with instruments of music, psalteries and harps and cymbals, sounding aloud and lifting up the voice with joy." And David himself gave to the celebration the aesthetics of one of the noblest of his psalms (1 Chronicles 16:8-36).
It is almost idle to refer to Solomon and his temple (1 Kings 6; 2 Chronicles 3). It is a common understanding that the civilization of Solomon's day was drawn upon to its utmost in every department of aesthetics, in the building of that house for Yahweh and in the appointments for the worship there to be conducted. Beauty of form and color and harmony of sound were then and there integrated--made one--with worship in holiness. The propriety of that association has been seen and felt through the ages.
There is beauty in speech. It is a fact that the supreme classics in the literature of the tongues of two of the dominant nations of the earth, the English and the German, are translations of the Bible. There is no explanation of such fact except that the original justified the translations. You can read indifferently from one translation to the other and catch the same aesthetic gleam. Nobility and poetry of thought lay in what was to be translated. Here is proof that cannot be gainsaid that the Scripture authors sought the aid of aesthetics as garb for the ethics they taught. So they wrote in poetry. So they used allegory, illustration, figure, metaphor that would charm and hold. The parables of Jesus are examples of this method of clothing thought. They do their ethical work because they have swept into it figure and imagery from familiar aesthetic perceptions. "The sower went forth to sow" (Matthew 13:3). That is a glad sight--always has been and always will be. That is why a picture of "The Sower" hangs on the walls of a Christian home. Just the painting--and every beholder remembers the parable and cannot forget its ethics. The intensity of thought concentrated upon ethics in the New Testament has drawn away attention from the partnership between these two principles in religion. But it is there, and we shall see it when once we look for it.
It is something to which we do not wake up till late in life--to wit, the measurelessness of the provision in Nature for beauty. Common consent awards beauty to the rainbow.
2. Aesthetics in Nature:
Reflect that every drop of water in the ocean, or in the hydrated rocks, or in the vapor floating over Saturn, has in it the possibility of rainbow coloring. In fact all matter has color of which the rainbow is only specimen. Any element incandescent has a spectrum partially coincident with that of water and ranging above and below it in the infinite capacity it has to start ether undulations. As apparently the larger part of the matter of the universe is incandescent, we can see that the field for expression in color is infinite. No one but the infinite God can see it all.
If we come down to this plain, plodding earth, cultivation of aesthetic sense will bring out beauty everywhere, from the grandeur of mountain scenery to aesthetic curves and colors revealed only by the microscope. We say the butterfly is finish beautiful. But the larva from which it is derived often carries as much beauty in mottling of color and of the fineness of of spine and mandible. Looking across the scale in this way the evidence of theism from beauty itself becomes convincing. Beauty becomes a messenger of and from God--as Iris was to the Greek and the rainbow to the Hebrew (Ecclesiastes 3:11).
This from Amiel's Journal Intime, I, 233, sets forth the radical, inexpugnable position of beauty in Nature and in philosophy thereof correctly interpretative:
"To the materialist philosopher the beautiful is a mere accident, and therefore rare. To the spiritualist philosopher the beautiful is the rule, the law, the universal foundation of things, to which every form returns as soon as the force of accident is withdrawn."
As we accustom ourselves to make larger and larger synthesis in the department of aesthetics, what diapason of theistic message may we not hear? Beauty wherever and however expressed is a medium of revelation. It is a bush ever burning, never consumed. Before it "put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground." That beauty should be--to that intent, for that end, from everlasting hath wrought the Ancient of Days.
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