In the Old Testament represented by several Hebrew words, generally with reference to an increase of external strength, as "c. the feeble knees" (Isaiah 35:3); "c. the kingdom" (2 Kings 15:19); "c. inheritance" (Psalms 68:9). In the New Testament, this external, objective sense is expressed by bebaioo, as in Mark 16:20; Romans 15:8. The strengthening of mind, purpose, conviction, i.e. the inner or subjective sense (Acts 14:22; 15:32,41) corresponds to episterizo. Used also of ratifying or making valid (kuroo) a covenant (Galatians 3:15). The noun is used in the second sense (Hebrews 6:16; Philippians 1:7). Confirmation, the rite, in some denominations, of admission to the full communion of the church, which the Roman church has elevated to the place of a sacrament, has only ecclesiastical, but no Scriptural, authority. It is grounded, however, in the Scriptural precedent of the laying on of hands after baptism.
H. E. Jacobs
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