Apart from Jesus Christ, John the Baptist is probably the most theologically significantfigure in the Gospels. As was the case with Jesus, his birth was meticulously recorded ( Luke 1:5-25 ). Hisentrance into the world was marked by angelic proclamation and divine intervention ( Luke 1:57-80 ).John's birth not only parallels that of Jesus, but echoes the momentous occasion of thebirth of Isaac to Abraham and Sarah ( Gen 17:15-22 ; 21:1-7 ). John isclearly a pivotal figure in the salvation history of God.
Although his formative years were lived in obscurity in the desert ( Luke 1:80 ), hispublic ministry ended nearly four hundred years of prophetic silence. John was that voicecrying in the wilderness preparing the way for the coming Messiah ( Isa 40:3 ; Matt 3:3 ; Mark 1:2-3 ; Luke 3:3-6 ). Inthis sense his message and ministry marked the culmination of the law and the prophets,but heralded the inbreaking of the kingdom of God ( Matt 11:12 ; Luke 16:16 ). SoJohn was truly a transitional figure, forming the link between the Old and New Testaments.He spans the ages with one foot firmly planted in the Old Testament and the other squarelyplaced in the New.
The central theme of his ministry was, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven isnear" ( Matt 3:2 ).He was called "The Baptist" because his practice was to baptize those whoresponded to the message he proclaimed and sincerely repented of their sins ( Matt 3:1 ; Mark 6:14 ; Luke 7:20 ).
John was an end-times prophet. He conducted his ministry with an eschatologicalauthority that demanded immediate action. He taught that judgment is at hand. The axe islaid to the roots and God will thoroughly purge his threshing floor ( Matt 3:10-12 ; Luke 3:9 Luke 3:17 ). Andthe authenticity of repentance was evidenced in very practical terms: share with those inneed, eliminate graft, and prohibit extortion ( Luke 3:11-14 ).
John's lifestyle was as austere as his message. He was an ascetic living in thewilderness, clothed in camel hair and subsisting on locusts and wild honey ( Matt 3:4 ; Mark 1:6 ). UnlikeJesus, he expected people to come to him, rather than he going to them ( Matt 3:5 ).
John was no "crowd pleaser." He willingly confronted the hypocrisy of thereligious establishment ( Matt 3:7 ; Luke 3:7 ). He did nothesitate to expose the immorality of Herod and chose to die a martyr's death rather thancompromise his convictions ( Matt 14:3-12 ; Mark 6:17-29 ).
All of these characteristics portray John as a fiery prophet proclaiming theapocalyptic message of God. Indeed, Luke says that John came "in the spirit and powerof Elijah" ( Luke1:17 ). He goes on to allude to Malachi 4:5, which states that Elijah will return"before that great and dreadful day of the Lord." In fact, some contemporariesof John inquired if he were Elijah ( John 1:21 ).
The belief that Elijah would return and prepare the way of the Lord can be traced toMalachi 3:1 and 4:5. Such belief is also found in the extrabiblical accounts of Sirah48:10 and 2 Esdras 6:2f. The Gospels also indicate that many believed that Elijah wouldcome first, and then the Christ ( Matt 11:14 ; 17:10 ; Mark 6:15 ; 9:11 ; Luke 9:8 ).
John flatly denied that he was Elijah reincarnated ( John 1:21 John 1:25 ).Nevertheless Jesus affirmed that Elijah must come first and that he had come in the personof John the Baptist ( Matt 17:11-13 ; Mark 9:12-13 ).John fulfilled Malachi's prophecy in a spiritual sense, rather than in a literal way.
In this way Jesus acknowledges the central role that John played in God's plan ofsalvation. He was the greatest born among women because he had the privilege of pointingto the Lamb of God ( John 1:29-34 ).Yet as the last great prophet of the pre-Christian era, he was the least in the kingdom ofGod ( Matt 11:11 ; Luke 7:28 ).
John fully accepted his subordinate role to Christ. He denied that he was the Christand repeatedly emphasized that he was simply a witness to the Light ( John 1:19-23 ;cf. also John 1:6-9 ; John 3:27-30 ). Johnstated that Jesus was greater than he, and that Jesus had a more powerful ministry andbaptism ( Mark 1:7-8 ; Luke 3:16 ; John 1:26-27 ).He did not want to baptize Jesus, but rather desired to be baptized by Jesus ( Matt 3:13-14 ).John allowed his disciples to leave his own leadership and follow after Jesus ( John 1:35-39 ).
But for all of his greatness, John was merely human. In this sense he too joined in thepopular speculations about the identity of Christ. It may be that John's vision of theMessiah varied so much from what he heard and saw in Jesus, that he came to question ifJesus were really the Christ ( Matt 11:1-2 ; Luke 7:18 ). The factthat Jesus was not an ascetic, and that he actively sought the fellowship of publicans andsinners may have been an offense to John and his disciples ( Matt 9:9-17 ; Matt 11:18-19 ; Luke 7:33-34 ).Jesus may have rebuked John in this regard when he said, "Blessed is the man who doesnot fall away on account of me" ( Matt 11:6 ; Luke 7:23 ).
Finally, even though John was merely a witness serving as a transitional figure, theimpact of his life and ministry should not be underestimated. During his lifetime he had afollowing of disciples who shared common practices such as fasting and prayers ( Matt 9:14 ; John 1:35-37 ; 4:1-2 ). John'sdisciples survived his death and spread throughout the Mediterranean world. Apollos wasfrom Alexandria in North Africa and at one point knew only of the baptism of John ( Acts 18:24-25 ).Similarly, upon arriving in Ephesus, Paul encountered about a dozen disciples of John.They too had only experienced the baptism of John ( Acts 19:1-7 ).These instances indicate that the Baptist's movement may have had more influence than whatwe are able to glean from the New Testament.
In recent scholarship, the historical relationship between Jesus and John has been thesubject of study. How did Jesus view John and what did John make of Jesus' ministry? Inthis type of study, John often serves as a paradigm for interpreting the life and ministryof Jesus. For example, the inclusion of the suffering and death of John may foreshadow thepain and death of Jesus on the cross. Also, to what extent did John influence the life andministry of Jesus? Indeed, the ill treatment of John by Herod Antipas may have had asignificant impact upon Jesus' early ministry in Galilee and in his final days inJerusalem.
The early Christian traditions that form the Gospel material on John are also the focusof modern research. For example, the scathing accusations and warnings of John areassociated with the ministry of Jesus ( Luke 3:7-18 ), butin the end are not typical of his message. Also there appears to have been an earlytradition that John had been raised from the dead ( Mark 6:14-16 ).What possible sources may have given rise to these traditions?
Even the topographical setting of John's ministry may be of theological significance.The desert setting may underscore the stark nature of John's message or may be symbolic ofIsrael's struggle in the desert.
And finally, the psychological and sociological analysis of John is of interest here.In accordance with the criteria of the sociology of deviance, John's behavior and messagecould be classified as "deviant." In this light, Matthew's use of Isaiah 40:2-3in 3:7-10 may seek to justify John and endorse the legitimacy of his ministry.
In conclusion, John the Baptist is of great theological importance in the NewTestament. He ended nearly four hundred years of prophetic silence and paved the way forthe Messiah. In the spirit of Elijah, he preached a message of repentance and baptism. Inhis darkest hour he questioned if Jesus was the One who was to come, or whether therewould be another. He inaugurated a spiritual movement that had influence long after hisdeath and extended throughout the Mediterranean world.
William A. Simmons
Bibliography. R. E. Brown, New Testament Essays; M. Cleary, ITQ54(1988): 211-27; M. Faierstein, JBL100 (1981): 75-86; R. C. Kazmierski, Bib 68(1987): 22-40; J. Lambrecht, NTS38 (1992): 357-84; P. J. Meier, JBL99/3(1980): 383-405; J. R. Miller, NTS 34 (1988): 611-22; S. J. Nortje, Neotestamentica23 (1989): 349-58; P. Parker, Perspectives in Religious Studies8 (1981): 4-11;J. A. T. Robinson, NTS4 (1958): 263-81; idem, Twelve New Testament Studies;C. Scobie, John the Baptist; W. Wink, John the Baptist in the Gospel Tradition.
For usage information, please read the Baker Book House Copyright Statement.
the "forerunner of our Lord." We have but fragmentary and imperfect accounts of him in the Gospels. He was of priestly descent. His father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course of Abia ( 1 Chronicles 24:10 ), and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron ( Luke 1:5 ). The mission of John was the subject of prophecy ( Matthew 3:3 ; Isaiah 40:3 ; Malachi 3:1 ). His birth, which took place six months before that of Jesus, was foretold by an angel. Zacharias, deprived of the power of speech as a token of God's truth and a reproof of his own incredulity with reference to the birth of his son, had the power of speech restored to him on the occasion of his circumcision ( Luke 1:64 ). After this no more is recorded of him for thirty years than what is mentioned in Luke 1:80 . John was a Nazarite from his birth ( Luke 1:15 ; Numbers 6:1-12 ). He spent his early years in the mountainous tract of Judah lying between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea ( Matthew 3:1-12 ).
At length he came forth into public life, and great multitudes from "every quarter" were attracted to him. The sum of his preaching was the necessity of repentance. He denounced the Sadducees and Pharisees as a "generation of vipers," and warned them of the folly of trusting to external privileges ( Luke 3:8 ). "As a preacher, John was eminently practical and discriminating. Self-love and covetousness were the prevalent sins of the people at large. On them, therefore, he enjoined charity and consideration for others. The publicans he cautioned against extortion, the soldiers against crime and plunder." His doctrine and manner of life roused the entire south of Palestine, and the people from all parts flocked to the place where he was, on the banks of the Jordan. There he baptized thousands unto repentance.
The fame of John reached the ears of Jesus in Nazareth ( Matthew 3:5 ), and he came from Galilee to Jordan to be baptized of John, on the special ground that it became him to "fulfil all righteousness" ( 3:15 ). John's special office ceased with the baptism of Jesus, who must now "increase" as the King come to his kingdom. He continued, however, for a while to bear testimony to the Messiahship of Jesus. He pointed him out to his disciples, saying, "Behold the Lamb of God." His public ministry was suddenly (after about six months probably) brought to a close by his being cast into prison by Herod, whom he had reproved for the sin of having taken to himself the wife of his brother Philip ( Luke 3:19 ). He was shut up in the castle of Machaerus (q.v.), a fortress on the southern extremity of Peraea, 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, and here he was beheaded. His disciples, having consigned the headless body to the grave, went and told Jesus all that had occurred ( Matthew 14:3-12 ). John's death occurred apparently just before the third Passover of our Lord's ministry. Our Lord himself testified regarding him that he was a "burning and a shining light" ( John 5:35 ).
was of the priestly race by both parents, for his father, Zacharias, was himself a priest of the course of Abia or Abijah, ( 1 Chronicles 24:10 ) and Elisabeth was of the daughters of Aaron. ( Luke 1:5 ) His birth was foretold by an angel sent from God, and is related at length in Luke 1. The birth of John preceded by six months that of our Lord. John was ordained to be a Nazarite from his birth. ( Luke 1:15 ) Dwelling by himself in the wild and thinly-peopled region westward of the Dead Sea, he prepared himself for the wonderful office to which he had been divinely called. His dress was that of the old prophets --a garment woven of camels hair, ( 2 Kings 1:8 ) attached to the body by a leathern girdle. His food was such as the desert afforded --locusts, ( Leviticus 11:22 ) and wild honey. ( Psalms 81:16 ) And now the long-secluded hermit came forth to the discharge of his office. His supernatural birth, his life, and the general expectation that some great one was about to appear, were sufficient to attract to him a great multitude from "every quarter." ( Matthew 3:5 ) Many of every class pressed forward to confess their sins and to be baptized. Jesus himself came from Galilee to Jordan to be baptized of John. [JESUS] From incidental notices we learn that John and his disciples continued to baptize some time after our Lord entered upon his ministry. See ( John 3:23 ; 4:1 ; Acts 19:3 ) We gather also that John instructed his disciples in certain moral and religious duties, as fasting, ( Matthew 9:14 ; Luke 5:33 ) and prayer. ( Luke 11:1 ) But shortly after he had given his testimony to the Messiah, Johns public ministry was brought to a close. In daring disregard of the divine laws, Herod Antipas had taken to himself Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip; and when John reproved him for this, as well as for other sins, ( Luke 3:19 ) Herod cast him into prison. (March, A.D. 28.) The place of his confinement was the castle of Machaerus, a fortress on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. It was here that reports reached him of the miracles which our Lord was working in Judea. Nothing but the death of the Baptist would satisfy the resentment of Herodias. A court festival was kept at Machaerus in honor of the kings birthday. After supper the daughter of Herodias came in and danced the king by her grace that he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she should ask. Salome, prompted by her abandoned mother, demanded the head of John the Baptist. Herod gave instructions to an officer of his guard, who went and executed John in the prison, and his head was brought to feast the eyes of the adulteress whose sins he had denounced. His death is supposed to have occurred just before the third passover, in the course of the Lords ministry. (March, A.D. 29.)