Kingdom of Israel

Kingdom of Israel

  1. Jeroboam, the First King. During Solomon's building operations he discovered a young man by the name of Jeroboam, the son of Nebat an Ephrathite, who was valorous and industrious, and he set him over the charge of the house of Joseph ( 1 Kings 11:26-29 ). Subsequently as the young man was going out of Jerusalem, he was met by the prophet Ahijah who, in a very impressive manner, assured him that he should reign over ten of the tribes of Israel ( 1 Kings 11:29-39 ). Solomon on hearing of this attempted to kill Jeroboam, and for protection he fled to Egypt ( 1 Kings 11:40 ). Upon the accession of Rehoboam to the throne the people sent for Jeroboam, and he joined his countrymen in requesting the new king to lighten their burdens which he emphatically refused to do, and Jeroboam led the revolt ( 1 Kings 11:1-24 ; 1 Chronicles 10:1-19 ). Jeroboam established himself at Shechem in Mount Ephraim, and in order to prevent the people from going to Jerusalem to worship, set up two golden calves, one at Bethel and the other at Dan, assuring the people that these were the gods that had brought them out of the land of Egypt ( 1 Kings 12:25-30 ). He also disregarded the law of God and made priests of the lowest of the people, and changed the time of holding the annual feasts ordained by Moses ( 1 Kings 12:31-33 ). During these perilous times a prophet of the Lord from Judah went to Bethel and found Jeroboam officiating at the altar. The prophet cried vehemently against the altar and predicted that a child should be born to the house of David, Josiah by name, who would destroy the priests of this altar on account of their sacrilegious work, and emphasized the authenticity of his commission by causing the altar to open and the ashes to pour out. Jeroboam was greatly angered and attempted to arrest the man of God with disastrous results, but through the intercession of the prophet he was restored ( 1 Kings 13:1-32 ). After this Jeroboam increased in wickedness ( 1 Kings 13:33 1 Kings 13:34 ). Jeroboam's son Abijah fell sick, and he sent his wife to Shiloh to interview the prophet Ahijah in order to find out the destiny of the child. He told her that the child would die, and predicted the extinction of Jeroboam's house on account of his unparalleled wickedness ( 1 Kings 14:1-18 ). Jeroboam reigned twenty-two years ( 1 Kings 14:19 1 Kings 14:20 ). He reigned contemporaneously with Rehoboam seventeen years ( 1 Kings 12:1-20 ; 1 Kings 14:20 ; 2 Chronicles 14:20 ), Abijah three years ( 1 Kings 14:31-15:2 ), and with Asa two years ( 1 Kings 14:20 1 Kings 14:31 ; 1 Kings 15:1 1 Kings 15:2 1 Kings 15:8-10 ; 2 Chronicles 12:13 ).

  2. Ahijah the Prophet. The prophet Ahijah flourished during the reign of Jeroboam ( 1 Kings 14:1-18 ).

  3. Nadab, the Second King. Jeroboam was succeeded by his son Nadab, whose uneventful reign continued only two years ( 1 Kings 15:25 ).

  4. Baasha, the Third King--Second Dynasty. Nadab was overthrown and succeeded by Baasha, who, as soon as he reached the throne, exterminated the house of Jeroboam because of his extreme wickedness ( 1 Kings 15:2-30 ). Baasha walked in the footsteps of Jeroboam ( 1 Kings 15:34 ). He was visited by the prophet of the Lord who predicted the destruction of his house on account of his sins ( 1 Kings 16:1-7 ). Baasha reigned over all Israel twenty-four years ( 1 Kings 15:34 ). He reigned contemporaneously with Asa ( 1 Kings 15:9 1 Kings 15:10 1 Kings 15:33 ).

  5. Jehu the Prophet. The prophet Jehu flourished during the reign of Baasha ( 1 Kings 16:1-4 ).

  6. Elah, the Fourth King. Baasha was succeeded by his son Elah, who reigned two years contemporaneously with Asa, king of Judah ( 1 Kings 15:9 1 Kings 15:10 ; 1 Kings 16:6-8 ).

  7. Zimri, the Fifth King--Third Dynasty. Elah was assassinated by his servant Zimri who, as soon as he ascended the throne, destroyed all the house of Baasha according to the word of the Lord. Zimri reigned contemporaneously with Asa seven days ( 1 Kings 15:9 1 Kings 15:10 ; 1 Kings 16:8-30 ).

  8. Omri, the Sixth King--Fourth Dynasty. Zimri was succeeded by Omri. He reigned six years in undisputed authority. He was contemporary with Asa ( 1 Kings 15:9 1 Kings 15:10 ; 1 Kings 16:21-23 ). The chief act of Omri's reign, was the founding of the city of Samaria ( 1 Kings 16:23 1 Kings 16:24 ). His reign was characterized by evil ( 1 Kings 16:25-27 ).

  9. Ahab, the Seventh King. Omri was succeeded by his son Ahab ( 1 Kings 16:28 ). He introduced idolatry into the court of Israel, and his reign was distinguished by its remarkable disregard for the law of God ( 1 Kings 16:9-17:24 ). He reigned contemporaneously with Asa four years ( 1 Kings 15:9 1 Kings 15:10 ; 1 Kings 16:29 ) and Jehoshaphat eighteen years ( 1 Kings 22;41,42 1 Kings 41,42 ).

  10. Micaiah and Elijah the Prophets. During the reign of Ahab two distinguished prophets flourished.
    1. Micaiah's history is very brief. Ahab formed a military alliance with Jehoshaphat, and they went to war against the king of Syria. Before they went into the battle, Ahab's prophets were called, and they uttered their predictions concerning the result of the contest, after which Micaiah was called, and in a very impressive manner predicted the result of the engagement, and his predictions were fulfilled ( 2 Chronicles 18:1-34 ).
    2. Elijah is one of the most dramatic characters in history. Both his appearance and departure from the scenes of earthly conflict are most remarkable. He appeared at a time when idolatry held high carnival in the court of Ahab, and when all Israel had apparently departed from the Lord ( 1 Kings 16:29-17:1 ).

    The chief events in life were,

    1. he appeared to Ahab, king of Israel and predicted that there should be neither rain nor dew except by his word ( 1 Kings 17:1 ; James 5:17 );
    2. he was fed by the ravens at the brook Cherith ( 1 Kings 17:2-7 );
    3. he arrived at Zarephath and dwelt there ( 1 Kings 17:8-16 );
    4. he restored the widow's son ( 1 Kings 17:17-24 );
    5. he appeared to Ahab the second time ( 1 Kings 18:1-19 );
    6. he repaired the altar of the Lord and destroyed the prophets of Baal ( 1 Kings 18:20-40 );
    7. the end of the drought and the race from Carmel to Jezreel ( 1 Kings 18:41-46 );
    8. he fled from the anger of Jezebel ( 1 Kings 19:1-3 );
    9. he sat down under a juniper tree and prayer for death ( 1 Kings 19:4 );
    10. the angel of the Lord appeared, fed, and strengthened him ( 1 Kings 19:5-8 );
    11. the Lord spoke to him at Mount Sinai and assured him that there were seven thousand in Israel who had not bowed their knees to Baal ( 1 Kings 19:9-18 );
    12. by the Lord's authority he anointed Elisha of Abelmeholah as his successor ( 1 Kings 19:15-21 );
    13. he predicted the terrible end of Ahab and his wife ( 1 Kings 21:17-29 );
    14. he called fire down from heaven ( 2 Kings 1:1-12 ; Luke 9:54 );
    15. he predicted the death of Ahaziah ( 2 Kings 1:13-18 );
    16. he was carried to heaven in a chariot of fire ( 2 Kings 2:1-18 ).

  11. Ahaziah, the Eighth King. Ahab was succeeded by his son Ahaziah. He followed in the footsteps of his wicked ancestors ( 1 Kings 22:51-53 ). An accident befell him, and he was dangerously sick, and he sent to inquire of Baalzebub the god of Ekron if he would recover. The angel of the Lord commanded Elijah to go and tell the messengers to declare to the king that he should surely die. When the king recognized the prophet in their description, he sent a deputation of soldiers requesting him to come to him at once. Disaster followed disaster until the prophet appeared in the court of the king and predicted his speedy death ( 2 Kings 1:1-16 ). Ahaziah reigned contemporaneously with Jehoshaphat two years ( 1 Kings 22:42-51 ; 2 Kings 3:1 ).

  12. Jehoram, the Ninth King. Ahaziah was succeeded by his brother Jehoram ( 2 Kings 1:17 ; 2 Kings 3:1 ). His reign was characterized by evil ( 2 Kings 3:1 2 Kings 3:2 ). The peace of his kingdom was disturbed by the rebellion of the king of Moab. In order to suppress this rebellion he associated with him the king of Judah and the king of Edom. Great destruction and sorrow followed ( 2 Kings 3:1-27 ). He reigned contemporaneously with Jehoshaphat ( 2 Kings 3:1 ), Jehoram ( 1 Kings 22:42 ; 2 Kings 3:1 ; 2 Kings 9:29 ; 2 Chronicles 21:1 2 Chronicles 21:5 ) and Ahaziah ( 2 Kings 9:29 ;

  13. Elisha the Prophet. Elisha the prophet flourished during these times. The chief events in his life were:
    1. he was anointed by Elijah as his successor ( 1 Kings 19:19-21 );
    2. he received a double portion of the spirit of Elijah ( 2 Kings 2:9-15 );
    3. he told king Jehoram how to obtain water during his campaign against the Moabites ( 2 Kings 3:10-20 );
    4. he increased the widow's oil ( 2 Kings 4:1-7 );
    5. he raised the Shunammite's son from the dead ( 2 Kings 4:8-38 );
    6. he performed a great miracle at Gilgal ( 2 Kings 4:39-41 );
    7. he fed a large multitude by a miraculous increase of the food ( 2 Kings 4:42-44 );
    8. he healed Naaman's leprosy ( 2 Kings 5:1-19 );
    9. he entailed leprosy on the house of Gehazi ( 2 Kings 5:20-27 );
    10. the great famine in Samaria ( 2 Kings 6:1-7 );
    11. he gave assistance to the king of Israel against his foes ( 2 Kings 6:8-12 );
    12. he was captured by the Syrians ( 2 Kings 6:13-18 );
    13. he led the Syrians to Samaria, fed them, furnished them with the necessities of life, sent them away, and thus gained a great victory ( 2 Kings 6:19-24 );
    14. he predicted sudden plenty, during the famine of Samaria ( 2 Kings 7:1 2 Kings 7:2 );
    15. his prediction was fulfilled ( 2 Kings 7:3-20 );
    16. he carried out the commission originally given to Elijah ( 1 Kings 19:15-18 ; 2 Kings 8:1-15 ; 2 Kings 9:1-13 ).

  14. Jehu, the Tenth King--Fifth Dynasty. Jehoram was slain and succeeded by Jehu, the son of Jehoshaphat, the son of Nimshi. He inaugurated a reformation by killing Jezebel, the sons of Ahab and the prophets of Baal ( 2 Kings 9:1-10:28 ). Because of his success in the destruction of evil, the Lord promised him that his children should sit upon the throne for four generations ( 2 Kings 10:29-34 ). Jehu reigned over Israel twenty-eight years, and was contemporary with Athaliah seven years ( 2 Kings 10:36 ; 2 Kings 11:1-4 ) and Jehoash twenty-one years ( 2 Kings 12:1 ;

  15. Jehoahaz, the Eleventh King. Jehu was succeeded by his son Jehoahaz, who reigned in Samaria seventeen years ( 2 Kings 18:1 ). His reign was characterized by a continuance of the idolatrous practice inaugurated by Jeroboam. The anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and He delivered them into the hands of the Syrians. The king seemed to be penitent but did not reform ( 2 Kings 12:2-8 ). He was contemporary with Jehoash seventeen years ( 2 Kings 12:1 ; 2 Kings 13:1 ).

  16. Joash, the Twelfth King. Jehoahaz was succeeded by his son Joash, who followed in the footprints of his wicked progenitors. During Elisha's last illness he was visited by Joash to whom he communicated the information that he should smite the Syrians three times ( 2 Kings 13:14-19 ). Joash reigned sixteen years, and was contemporary with Jehoash two years ( 2 Kings 13:9 2 Kings 13:10 ; 2 Kings 12:1 ; 2 Kings 14:1 ) and Amaziah fourteen years ( 2 Kings 14:1 2 Kings 14:2 ).

  17. Jeroboam the Second, the Thirteenth King. Joash was succeeded by his son Jeroboam. He adhered to the ways of his ancestors. He restored the coast of Israel from the "entering of Hamath unto the sea of the plain," according to the prediction of Jonah the son of Amittai ( 2 Kings 14:23-25 ). Israel was greatly afflicted during these times, but the Lord granted them deliverance by the hand of the king ( 2 Kings 14:26 2 Kings 14:27 ). He reigned forty-one years, and was contemporary with Amaziah fifteen years ( 2 Kings 14:1 2 Kings 14:2 2 Kings 14:23 ) and Uzziah fourteen years ( 2 Kings 15:1 ).

  18. Jonah the Prophet. Jonah the prophet flourished during the reign of Jeroboam the Second ( 2 Kings 14:23-25 ). The chief events in his life were,
    1. he received a commission from the Lord to go unto the great city of Nineveh and cry against it ( Jonah 1:1 Jonah 1:2 ); (b) he was cast into the sea and swallowed by a great fish ( Jonah 1:3-17 );
    2. he prayed to the Lord and was delivered ( Jonah 2:1-10 );
    3. the people of Nineveh repented at his preaching ( Jonah 4:1-11 ).

  19. Interregnum. There was a space of about twenty-four years between the death of Jeroboam the Second, and the accession of Zachariah ( 2 Kings 14:23 ; 2 Kings 15:1 2 Kings 15:8 ).

  20. Zachariah, the Fourteenth King. Jeroboam the Second was succeeded by his son Zachariah in whom was fulfilled the promise of the Lord to Jehu ( 2 Kings 14:29 ; 2 Kings 15:8-12 ). He reigned six months contemporaneously with Uzziah ( 2 Kings 15:1 2 Kings 15:2 2 Kings 15:8 ).

  21. Shallum, the Fifteenth King-- Sixth Dynasty. Zachariah was slain and succeeded by Shallum who reigned a full month, contemporaneously with Uzziah ( 2 Kings 15:1 2 Kings 15:2 2 Kings 15:10 2 Kings 15:13 ).

  22. Menahem, the Sixteenth King--Seventh Dynasty. Shallum was slain and succeeded by Menahem. His reign was distinguished by a very great wickedness, war and excessive taxation ( 2 Kings 15:14-22 ). He reigned ten years contemporaneously with Uzziah ( 2 Kings 15:1 2 Kings 15:2 2 Kings 15:17 ).

  23. Pekahiah, the Seventeenth King. Menahem was succeeded by his son Pekahiah. His reign was distinguished on account of wickedness. He reigned two years contemporaneously with Uzziah ( 2 Kings 15:1 2 Kings 15:2 2 Kings 15:22-24 ).

  24. Pekah, the Eighteenth King--Eighth Dynasty. Pekahiah was slain and succeeded by Pekah ( 2 Kings 15:25-27 ). He departed not from the example of his progenitors ( 2 Kings 15:28 ). He reigned twenty years ( 2 Kings 15:27 ), and was contemporary with Uzziah about one year ( 2 Kings 15:1 2 Kings 15:2 ), Jotham sixteen years ( 2 Kings 15:32 2 Kings 15:33 ; years ( 2 Kings 16:1 ).

  25. Interregnum. There was an interregnum of about eight years between the death of Pekah and the accession of Hoshea ( 2 Kings 15:27 2 Kings 16:1 2 Kings 16:2 ; 2 Kings 17:1 ).

  26. Hoshea, the Nineteenth King--Ninth Dynasty. Pekah was slain and succeeded by Hoshea ( 2 Kings 15:30 ). During the reign of Hoshea, Israel was carried by the Assyrians into captivity, and their country was occupied by their enemies ( 2 Kings 17:1-41 ).