This word is used in its proper sense in Deuteronomy 28:34 , John 10:20, 1 Corinthians 14:23 . It also denotes a reckless state of mind arising from various causes, as over-study (Eccl 1:17 ; 2:12 ), blind rage ( Luke 6:11 ), or a depraved temper (Eccl 7:25 ; 9:3 ; 2 Pet 2:16 ). David feigned madness ( 1 Samuel 21:13 ) at Gath because he "was sore afraid of Achish."
In Scripture "madness" is recognized as a derangement proceeding either from weakness and misdirection of intellect or from ungovernable violence of passion. In one passage alone, ( John 10:20 ) is madness expressly connected with demoniacal possession by the Jews in their cavil against our Lord; in none is it referred to any physical causes.