used in defensive warfare, varying at different times and under different circumstances in size, form, and material ( 1 Samuel 17:7 ; 2 Sam 1:21 ; 1 Kings 10:17 ; 1 Chronicles 12:8 1 Chronicles 12:24 1 Chronicles 12:34 ; Isaiah 22:6 ; Ezekiel 39:9 ; Nahum 2:3 ).
Shields were usually "anointed" ( Isaiah 21:5 ), in order to preserve them, and at the same time make the missiles of the enemy glide off them more easily.
The ordinary shield consisted of a framework of wood covered with leather; it thus admitted of being burnt. ( Ezekiel 39:9 ) It was frequently cased with metal, either brass or copper; its appearance in this case resembled gold when the sun shone on it, 1 Macc. 6:39 and to this, rather than to the practice of smearing blood on the shield we may refer the redness noticed by. Nahum. ( Nahum 2:3 ) The surface of the shield was kept bright by the application of oil as implied in ( Isaiah 21:5 ) The shield was worn on the left arm, to which it was attached by a strap. Shields of state were covered with beaten gold. Shields were suspended about public buildings for ornamental purposes. ( 1 Kings 10:17 ) In the metaphorical language of the Bible the shield generally represents the protection of God: e.g. ( Psalms 3:3 ; 28:7 ) but in ( Psalms 47:9 ) it is applied to earthly rulers and in ( Ephesians 6:18 ) to faith. [ARMS]