During the ages before the exodus there was not established priesthood, and no special law regulating the offering of sacrifices; but the sacrifices were undoubtedly offered in obedience to Divine command ( Genesis 4:1-5 ; Genesis 22:1-9 ; Genesis 35:1-3 ; Romans 10:17 ; Hebrews 11:4 ). God was gradually preparing the people of his choice for a more perfect revelation of Himself and a more explicit code of laws for their government. He was gradually cutting them off from other nations in order to preserve the blood of Abraham. During the sojourn in Egypt the chosen people largely fell into the corruptions of their surroundings. Tribal relations and conditions had to some extent been developed and preserved, even during the enslavement; but there is no proof that there was any general bond of union or any public worship.
| Carbuncle | Topaz | Sardius | | Zebulon | Issachar | Judah | | Fire-red | Golden tinge | Blood-red | | Diamond | Sapphire | Emerald | | Gad | Simeon | Reuben | | | Sky-blue | Shining-green | | Amethyst | Agate | Ligure | | Benjamin | Manasseh | Ephraim | | Violet-blue| Diverse colors | | | Jasper | Onyx | Beryl | | Naphtali | Dan | Asher | | Dark-red | Sea-green | Deep golden |