Zechariah

Zechariah [H] [S]

Jehovah is renowned or remembered.

  • A prophet of Judah, the eleventh of the twelve minor prophets. Like Ezekiel, he was of priestly extraction. He describes himself ( 1:1 ) as "the son of Berechiah." In Ezra 5:1 and 6:14 he is called "the son of Iddo," who was properly his grandfather. His prophetical career began in the second year of Darius (B.C. 520), about sixteen years after the return of the first company from exile. He was contemporary with Haggai ( Ezra 5:1 ).

    His book consists of two distinct parts, (1) chapters 1 to 8, inclusive, and (2) 9 to the end. It begins with a preface ( 1:1-6 ), which recalls the nation's past history, for the purpose of presenting a solemn warning to the present generation. Then follows a series of eight visions ( (1:7-6:8), ), succeeding one another in one night, which may be regarded as a symbolical history of Israel, intended to furnish consolation to the returned exiles and stir up hope in their minds. The symbolical action, the crowning of ( Joshua 6:9-15 ), describes how the kingdoms of the world become the kingdom of God's Christ.

    Chapters 7 and 8, delivered two years later, are an answer to the question whether the days of mourning for the destruction of the city should be any longer kept, and an encouraging address to the people, assuring them of God's presence and blessing.

    The second part of the book (ch. 9-14) bears no date. It is probable that a considerable interval separates it from the first part. It consists of two burdens.

    The first burden (ch. 9-11) gives an outline of the course of God's providential dealings with his people down to the time of the Advent.

    The second burden (ch. 12-14) points out the glories that await Israel in "the latter day", the final conflict and triumph of God's kingdom.

  • The son or grandson of Jehoiada, the high priest in the times of Ahaziah and Joash. After the death of Jehoiada he boldly condemned both the king and the people for their rebellion against God ( 2 Chronicles 24:20 ), which so stirred up their resentment against him that at the king's commandment they stoned him with stones, and he died "in the court of the house of the Lord" ( 24:21 ). Christ alludes to this deed of murder in Matthew 23:35 , Luke 11:51 . (See ZACHARIAS [2].)

  • A prophet, who had "understanding in the seeing of God," in the time of Uzziah, who was much indebted to him for his wise counsel ( 2 Chronicles 26:5 ).

    Besides these, there is a large number of persons mentioned in Scripture bearing this name of whom nothing is known.

  • One of the chiefs of the tribe of Reuben ( 1 Chronicles 5:7 ).

  • One of the porters of the tabernacle ( 1 Chronicles 9:21 ).

  • 1 Chronicles 9:37 .

  • A Levite who assisted at the bringing up of the ark from the house of Obededom ( 1 Chronicles 15:20-24 ).

  • A Kohathite Levite ( 1 Chronicles 24:25 ).

  • A Merarite Levite ( 1 Chronicles 27:21 ).

  • The father of Iddo ( 1 Chronicles 27:21 ).

  • One who assisted in teaching the law to the people in the time of Jehoshaphat ( 2 Chronicles 17:7 ).

  • A Levite of the sons of Asaph ( 2 Chronicles 20:14 ).

  • One of Jehoshaphat's sons ( 2 Chronicles 21:2 ).

  • The father of Abijah, who was the mother of Hezekiah ( 2 Chronicles 29:1 ).

  • One of the sons of Asaph ( 2 Chronicles 29:13 ).

  • One of the "rulers of the house of God" ( 2 Chronicles 35:8 ).

  • A chief of the people in the time of Ezra, who consulted him about the return from captivity ( Ezra 8:16 ); probably the same as mentioned in Nehemiah 8:4 ,

  • Nehemiah 11:12 .

  • Nehemiah 12:16 .

  • Nehemiah 12:35 Nehemiah 12:41 .

  • Isaiah 8:2 .

    These dictionary topics are from
    M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition,
    published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain, copy freely.

    [H] indicates this entry was also found in Hitchcock's Bible Names
    [S] indicates this entry was also found in Smith's Bible Dictionary

    Bibliography Information

    Easton, Matthew George. "Entry for Zechariah". "Easton's Bible Dictionary". .

  • Zechariah [E] [S]

    same as Zachariah
    Hitchcock's Dictionary of Bible Names. Public Domain. Copy freely.

    [E] indicates this entry was also found in Easton's Bible Dictionary
    [S] indicates this entry was also found in Smith's Bible Dictionary

    Bibliography Information

    Hitchcock, Roswell D. "Entry for 'Zechariah'". "An Interpreting Dictionary of Scripture Proper Names". . New York, N.Y., 1869.

    Zechariah. [E] [H]

    1. The eleventh in order of the twelve minor prophets. He is called in his prophecy the son of Berechiah and the grandson of Iddo, whereas in the book of Ezra, ( Ezra 5:1 ; 6:14 ) he is said to have been the son of Iddo. It is natural to suppose as the prophet himself mentions his fathers name, whereas the book of Ezra mentions only Iddo, that Berechiah had died early, and that there was now no intervening link between the grandfather and the grandson. Zechariah, like Jeremiah and Ezekiel before him, was priest as well as prophet. He seems to have entered upon his office while yet young, ( Zechariah 2:4 ) and must have been born in Babylon whence he returned with the first caravan of exiles under Zerubbabel and Jeshua. It was in the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, that he first publicly discharged his office. In this he acted in concert with Haggai. Both prophets had the same great object before them; both directed all their energies to the building of the second temple. To their influence we find the rebuilding of the temple in a great measure ascribed. If the later Jewish accounts may be trusted, Zechariah, as well as Haggai, was a member of the Great Synagogue. The genuine writings of Zechariah help us but little in our estimate of his character. Some faint traces, however, we may observe in them, of his education in Babylon. He leans avowedly on the authority of the older prophets, and copies their expressions. Jeremiah especially seems to have been his favorite; and hence the Jewish saying that "the spirit of Jeremiah dwelt in Zechariah." But in what may be called the peculiarities of his prophecy, he approaches more nearly to Ezekiel and Daniel. Like them he delights in visions; like them he uses symbols and allegories rather than the bold figures and metaphors which lend so much force and beauty to the writings of the earlier prophets. Generally speaking, Zechariahs style is pure, and remarkably free from Chaldaisms.
    2. Son of Meshelemiah or Shelemiah a Korhite, and keeper of the north gate of the tabernacle of the congregation, ( 1 Chronicles 9:21 ) (B.C. 1043.)
    3. One of the sons of Jehiel. ( 1 Chronicles 9:37 )
    4. A Levite of the second order in the temple band as arranged by David, appointed to play "with psalteries on Alamoth." ( 1 Chronicles 15:18 1 Chronicles 15:20 ) (B.C. 1043.)
    5. One of the princes of Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat. ( 2 Chronicles 17:7 ) (B.C. 910.)
    6. Son of the high priest Jehoiada, in the reign of Joash king of Judah ( 2 Chronicles 24:20 ) and therefore the kings cousin. After the death of Jehoiada, Zechariah probably succeeded to his office, and in attempting to check the reaction in favor of idolatry which immediately followed he fell a victim to a conspiracy formed against him by the king, and was stoned in the court of the temple. He is probably the same as the "Zacharias son of Barachias" who was slain between the temple and the altar. ( Matthew 23:35 ) [ZACHARIAS, No. 2] (B.C. 838.)
    7. A Kohathite Levite in the reign of Josiah. ( 2 Chronicles 34:12 ) (B.C. 628.)
    8. The leader of the sons of Pharosh who returned with Ezra. ( Ezra 8:3 ) (B.C. 450.)
    9. Son of Behai. ( Ezra 8:11 )
    10. One of the chiefs of the people whom Ezra summoned in council at the river Ahava. ( Ezra 8:16 ) He stood at Ezras left hand when he expounded the law to the people. ( Nehemiah 8:4 ) (B.C. 459.)
    11. One of the family of Elam who had married a foreign wife after the captivity. ( Ezra 10:26 ) (B.C.458.)
    12. Ancestor of Athaiah or Uthai. ( Nehemiah 11:4 )
    13. A Shilonite, descendant of Perez. ( Nehemiah 11:5 )
    14. A priest, son of Pashur. ( Nehemiah 11:12 )
    15. The representative of the priestly family of Iddo in the days of Joiakim the son of Jeshua. ( Nehemiah 12:16 ) (B.C. 536.) possibly the same as Zechariah the prophet, the son of Iddo.
    16. One of the priests, son of Jonathan, who blew with the trumpets at the dedication of the city wall by Ezra and Nehemiah. ( Nehemiah 12:36 Nehemiah 12:41 ) (B.C. 446.)
    17. A chief of the Reubenites at the time of the captivity by Tiglath-pileser. ( 1 Chronicles 5:7 ) (B.C. 740.)
    18. One of the priests who accompanied the ark from the house of Obed-edom. ( 1 Chronicles 15:24 ) (B.C. 1043.)
    19. Son of Isshiah or Jesiah, a Kohathite Levite descended from Uzziel. ( 1 Chronicles 24:25 ) (B.C. 1043.)
    20. Fourth son of Hosah of the children of Merari. ( 1 Chronicles 26:11 )
    21. A Manassite. ( 1 Chronicles 27:21 1 Chronicles 27:22 )
    22. The father of Jahaziel. ( 2 Chronicles 20:14 )
    23. One of the sons of Jehoshaphat. ( 2 Chronicles 21:2 )
    24. A prophet in the reign of Uzziah who appears to have acted as the kings counsellor, but of whom nothing is known. ( 2 Chronicles 26:5 ) (B.C. 807.)
    25. The father of Abijah or Abi, Hezekiahs mother. ( 2 Chronicles 29:1 )
    26. One of the family of Asaph in the reign of Hezekiah. ( 2 Chronicles 29:13 ) (B.C. 727.)
    27. One of the rulers of the temple in the reign of Josiah. ( 2 Chronicles 35:8 ) (B.C. 628.)
    28. The son of Jeberechiah, who was taken by the prophet Isaiah as one of the "faithful witnesses to record," when he wrote concerning Maher-shalal-hash-baz. ( Isaiah 8:2 ) (B.C. 723.) He may have been the Levite of the same name who in the reign of Hezekiah assisted in the purification of the temple. ( 2 Chronicles 29:13 ) Another conjecture is that he is the same as Zechariah the father of Abijah, the queen of Ahaz.

    [E] indicates this entry was also found in Easton's Bible Dictionary
    [H] indicates this entry was also found in Hitchcock's Bible Names

    Bibliography Information

    Smith, William, Dr. "Entry for 'Zechariah'". "Smith's Bible Dictionary". . 1901.

    ZECHARIAH (1)

    zek-a-ri'-a (zekharyahu, or zekharyah; the Septuagint Zacharia(s)):

    A very common name in the Old Testament. The form, especially the longer form, of the name would suggest for its meaning, "Yah remembers" or "Yah is renowned," and the name was doubtless understood in this sense in later times. But the analogies with ZACCUR, ZECHER, ZICHRI (which see), etc., make some original ethnic derivation probable.

    (1) King of Israel, son of Jeroboam II (the King James Version "Zachariah"). See the next article.

    (2) The grandfather of King Hezekiah, through Hezekiah's mother Abi (2 Kings 18:2, the King James Version "Zachariah" parallel 2 Chronicles 29:1).

    (3) A contemporary of Isaiah, taken by Isaiah as a trustworthy witness in the matter of the sign Maher-shalal-hash-baz (Isaiah 8:1). As his father's name was Jeberechiah, some support seems to be offered to theories of those who would make him the author of certain portions of Zechariah.

    See ZECHARIAH, BOOK OF.

    (4) A Reubenite of the time of Israel's captivity (1 Chronicles 5:7).

    (5) A Benjamite, living in Gideon (1 Chronicles 9:37; called "Zecher" in 8:31). He was the brother of Kish and hence, the uncle of Saul.

    (6) A Manassite of Gilead, at the time of David (1 Chronicles 27:21).

    (7) The third son of Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 21:2). He was slain by Jehoram (2 Chronicles 21:4).

    (8) A "prince" who Jehoshaphat sent to "teach" in the cities of Judah (2 Chronicles 17:7). As this "teaching" was in connection with the establishing of the Law, Zechariah was primarily a judge.

    (9) A prophet who was influential in the early days of Uzziah (2 Chronicles 26:5). He is characterized as ha-mebh in bire'oth (beyir'ath(?)) ha-elohim, which phrase is usually understood to mean that he had instructed (Revised Version margin) the king in the fear of God. As long as he lived the king profited by his instruction and advice.

    The following eight are all Levites:

    (10) A doorkeeper at the time of David, who was made a singer "of the second degree" (1 Chronicles 15:18; the text is confused). He was a player on a "psaltery" (1 Chronicles 15:20) and took part in the thanksgiving when the Ark was brought to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 16:5).

    (11) A son of Isshiah (1 Chronicles 24:25).

    (12) A son of Meshelemiah, a "porter of the door of the tent of meeting" at the time of David (1 Chronicles 9:21; 26:2,14). In 1 Chronicles 26:14 called "a discreet counselor."

    (13) A son of Hosah, a Merarite, also at David's time (1 Chronicles 26:11).

    (14) The father of the prophet, JAHAZIEL (which see) (2 Chronicles 20:14).

    (15) A son of Asaph, who assisted in the purification of the Temple at the time of Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 29:13).

    (16) A Kohathite, who assisted in the repair of the Temple at the time of Josiah (2 Chronicles 34:12).

    (17) A son of Jonathan, an Asaphite, one of the musicians at the dedication of the wall at the time of Nehemiah (Nehemiah 12:35).

    The following are all priests:

    (18) A trumpeter at the time of David (1 Chronicles 15:24).

    (19) A son of Jehoiada, at the time of Joash. He rebuked the people publicly for their apostasy, and was stoned by them, Joash consenting to their act (2 Chronicles 24:20-22). As 2 Chronicles is the last book in the Hebrew Old Testament, Zechariah was regarded as the last of the Old Testament martyrs, and hence, is coupled with Abel (the first martyr) in Matthew 23:35 parallel Luke 11:51. The words "son of Barachiah" in Matthew are due to confusing this Zechariah with the prophet.

    See ZACHARIAH.

    (20) One of the "rulers of the house of God" at the time of Josiah (2 Chronicles 35:8).

    (21) A son of Pashhur, 242 of whose descendants as "chiefs of fathers' houses" dwelt in Jerusalem at the time of Nehemiah (Nehemiah 11:13).

    (22) A trumpeter at the dedication of the wall at the time of Nehemiah (Nehemiah 12:41).

    (23) The prophet (Ezra 5:1; 6:14; Nehemiah 12:16; Zechariah 1:1,7; 7:1,8; 1 Esdras 6:1; 7:3).

    See ZECHARIAH, BOOK OF.

    The following are all returned exiles or are mentioned only as ancestors of such:

    (24) A son of Parosh (Ezra 8:3; 1 Esdras 8:30 has "Zacharias" here and elsewhere).

    (25) A son of Bebai (Ezra 8:11; 1 Esdras 8:37)

    (26) One of the "chief men" dispatched by Ezra to bring priests from Casiphia (Ezra 8:16; 1 Esdras 8:44). Doubtless the same as (24) or (25), above.

    (27) One of the persons who stood by Ezra at the reading of the Law (Nehemiah 8:4; 1 Esdras 9:44); almost certainly identical with (26).

    (28) A son of Elam, who had taken a foreign wife (Ezra 10:26; 1 Esdras 9:27).

    (29) A son of Amariah, a Judahite, the ancestor of certain persons dwelling in Jerusalem (Nehemiah 11:4).

    (30) A son of "the Shilonite," the ancestor of certain persons dwelling in Jerusalem (Nehemiah 11:5).

    Burton Scott Easton


    Copyright Statement
    These files are public domain.

    Bibliography Information
    Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Entry for 'ZECHARIAH (1)'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". 1915.  

    ZECHARIAH (2)

    (zekharyah, zekharydhu, "Yah has remembered" (2 Kings 14:29; 15:8-12); Zacharias, the King James Version Zachariah):

    Son of Jeroboam II, and 14th king of Israel. He was the 4th of the line of Jehu, and reigned six months. Zechariah succeeded to a splendid inheritance, as he was king, not only of the ten tribes of Israel, but of the Syrian state of Damascus, which his father had subdued. In the unusual wealth and dignity of this position lay his peril. Also there were two dark shadows falling across his path, though both probably unseen by him. One was the promise to Jehu, as the reward of his destroying the worship of Baal in Israel, that his sons should sit on the throne of Israel to the 4th generation (2 Kings 10:30; 15:12). Zechariah was Jehu's great-great-grandson. The other was the word of Amos to the priest of Bethel: "Then said the Lord. ... I will rise against the house of Jeroboam with the sword" (Amos 7:8,9).

    The only brief notice of Zechariah personal to himself is that he gave his support to the worship of the calves, since Jeroboam I established the religion of the state. He hardly had time, however, to identify himself with this or any institution before he was publicly assassinated by Shallum, the son of Jabesh (he "smote him before the people"). The prophet Hosea was then alive, and there is probably allusion to this crime when, addressing Ephraim, he says:

    "Where is thy king, that he may save thee in all thy cities?. ... I have given thee a king in mine anger, and have taken him away in my wrath" (Hosea 13:10,11; compare 1:4).

    There has long been difficulty with the chronology of this period. Archbishop Ussher assumed an interregnum of 11 years between the death of Jeroboam II and Zechariah's accession. This is accepted as probable by a recent writer, who sees "at least 10 years of incessant conflict between rival claimants to the throne on Jeroboam's death" (see article "Zechariah" in HDB, IV). It seems more likely that there is error in certain of the synchronisms. The year of Zechariah's accession was probably 759 BC (some put it later), and the 6 months of his reign, with that given to Shallum, may be included in the 10 years of Menahem, who followed them (2 Kings 15:17).

    See CHRONOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

    W. Shaw Caldecott


    Copyright Statement
    These files are public domain.

    Bibliography Information
    Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Entry for 'ZECHARIAH (2)'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". 1915.