Habakkuk must wait in faith. (1-4) Judgments upon the Chaldeans. (5-14) Also upon drunkenness and idolatry. (15-20)
Verses 1-4 When tossed and perplexed with doubts about the methods of Providence, we must watch against temptations to be impatient. When we have poured out complaints and requests before God, we must observe the answers God gives by his word, his Spirit, and providences; what the Lord will say to our case. God will not disappoint the believing expectations of those who wait to hear what he will say unto them. All are concerned in the truths of God's word. Though the promised favour be deferred long, it will come at last, and abundantly recompense us for waiting. The humble, broken-hearted, repenting sinner, alone seeks to obtain an interest in this salvation. He will rest his soul on the promise, and on Christ, in and through whom it is given. Thus he walks and works, as well as lives by faith, perseveres to the end, and is exalted to glory; while those who distrust or despise God's all-sufficiency will not walk uprightly with him. The just shall live by faith in these precious promises, while the performance of them is deferred. Only those made just by faith, shall live, shall be happy here and for ever.
Verses 5-14 The prophet reads the doom of all proud and oppressive powers that bear hard upon God's people. The lusts of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life, are the entangling snares of men; and we find him that led Israel captive, himself led captive by each of these. No more of what we have is to be reckoned ours, than what we come honestly by. Riches are but clay, thick clay; what are gold and silver but white and yellow earth? Those who travel through thick clay, are hindered and dirtied in their journey; so are those who go through the world in the midst of abundance of wealth. And what fools are those that burden themselves with continual care about it; with a great deal of guilt in getting, saving, and spending it, and with a heavy account which they must give another day! They overload themselves with this thick clay, and so sink themselves down into destruction and perdition. See what will be the end hereof; what is gotten by violence from others, others shall take away by violence. Covetousness brings disquiet and uneasiness into a family; he that is greedy of gain troubles his own house; what is worse, it brings the curse of God upon all the affairs of it. There is a lawful gain, which, by the blessing of God, may be a comfort to a house; but what is got by fraud and injustice, will bring poverty and ruin upon a family. Yet that is not the worst; Thou hast sinned against thine own soul, hast endangered it. Those who wrong their neighbours, do much greater wrong to their own souls. If the sinner thinks he has managed his frauds and violence with art and contrivance, the riches and possessions he heaped together will witness against him. There are not greater drudges in the world than those who are slaves to mere wordly pursuits. And what comes of it? They find themselves disappointed of it, and disappointed in it; they will own it is worse than vanity, it is vexation of spirit. By staining and sinking earthly glory, God manifests and magnifies his own glory, and fills the earth with the knowledge of it, as plentifully as waters cover the sea, which are deep, and spread far and wide.
Verses 15-20 A severe woe is pronounced against drunkenness; it is very fearful against all who are guilty of drunkenness at any time, and in any place, from the stately palace to the paltry ale-house. To give one drink who is in want, who is thirsty and poor, or a weary traveller, or ready to perish, is charity; but to give a neighbour drink, that he may expose himself, may disclose secret concerns, or be drawn into a bad bargain, or for any such purpose, this is wickedness. To be guilty of this sin, to take pleasure in it, is to do what we can towards the murder both of soul and body. There is woe to him, and punishment answering to the sin. The folly of worshipping idols is exposed. The Lord is in his holy temple in heaven, where we have access to him in the way he has appointed. May we welcome his salvation, and worship him in his earthly temples, through Christ Jesus, and by the influence of the Holy Spirit.
Habakkuk 2:1-20 . THE PROPHET, WAITING EARNESTLY FOR AN ANSWER TO HIS COMPLAINTS (FIRST CHAPTER), RECEIVES A REVELATION, WHICH IS TO BE FULFILLED, NOT IMMEDIATELY, YET IN DUE TIME, AND IS THEREFORE TO BE WAITED FOR IN FAITH: THE CHALDEANS SHALL BE PUNISHED FOR THEIR CRUEL RAPACITY, NOR CAN THEIR FALSE GODS AVERT THE JUDGMENT OF JEHOVAH, THE ONLY TRUE GOD.
1. stand upon . . . watch--that is, watch-post. The prophets often compare themselves, awaiting the revelations of Jehovah with earnest patience, to watchmen on an eminence watching with intent eye all that comes within their view ( Isaiah 21:8 Isaiah 21:11 , Jeremiah 6:17 , Ezekiel 3:17 , Ezekiel 33:2 Ezekiel 33:3 ; compare Psalms 5:3 , 85:8 ). The "watch-post" is the withdrawal of the whole soul from earthly, and fixing it on heavenly, things. The accumulation of synonyms, "stand open . . . watch . . . set me upon . . . tower . . . watch to see" implies persevering fixity of attention.
what he will say unto me--in answer to my complaints ( Habakkuk 1:13 ). Literally, "in me," God speaking, not to the prophet's outward ear, but inwardly. When we have prayed to God, we must observe what answers God gives by His word, His Spirit, and His providences.
what I shall answer when I am reproved--what answer I am to make to the reproof which I anticipate from God on account of the liberty of my expostulation with Him. MAURER translates, "What I am to answer in respect to my complaint against Jehovah" ( Habakkuk 1:12-17 ).
2. Write the vision--which I am about to reveal to thee.
make it plain--( Deuteronomy 27:8 ). In large legible characters.
upon tables--boxwood tables covered with wax, on which national affairs were engraved with an iron pen, and then hung up in public, at the prophets own houses, or at the temple, that those who passed might read them. Compare Luke 1:63 , "writing table," that is, tablet.
that he may run that readeth it--commonly explained, "so intelligible as to be easily read by any one running past"; but then it would be, that he that runneth may read it. The true sense is, "so legible that whoever readeth it, may run to tell all whom he can the good news of the foe's coming doom, and Judah's deliverance." Compare Daniel 12:4 , "many shall run to and fro," namely, with the explanation of the prophecy, then unsealed; also, Revelation 22:17 , "let him that heareth (the good news) say (to every one within his reach), Come." "Run" is equivalent to announce the divine revelation ( Jeremiah 23:21 ); as everyone who becomes informed of a divine message is bound to run, that is, use all despatch to make it known to others [HENDERSON]. GROTIUS, LUDOVICUS DE DIEU, and MAURER interpret it: "Run" is not literal running, but "that he who reads it may run through it," that is, read it at once without difficulty.
3. for--assigning the cause why it ought to be committed to writing: because its fulfilment belongs to the future.
the vision is yet for an appointed time--( Daniel 10:14 , Daniel 11:27 Daniel 11:35 ). Though the time appointed by God for the fulfilment be yet future, it should be enough for your faith that God hath spoken it ( Lamentations 3:26 ).
at the end it shall speak--MAURER translates, "it pants for the end." But the antithesis between, "it shall speak," and "not be silent," makes English Version the better rendering. So the Hebrew is translated in Proverbs 12:17 . Literally, "breathe out words," "break forth as a blast."
though it tarry, wait for it--( Genesis 49:18 ).
4. his soul which is lifted up--the Chaldean's [MAURER]. The unbelieving Jew's [HENDERSON].
is not upright in him--that is, is not accounted upright in God's sight; in antithesis to "shall live." So Hebrews 10:38 , which with inspired authority applies the general sense to the particular case which Paul had in view, "If any man draw back (one result of being 'lifted up' with overweening arrogancy), my soul shall have no pleasure in him."
the just shall live by his faith--the Jewish nation, as opposed to the unbelieving Chaldean (compare Habakkuk 2:5 , &c. Habakkuk 1:6 , &c., Habakkuk 1:13 ) [MAURER]. HENDERSON'S view is that the believing Jew is meant, as opposed to the unbelieving Jew (compare Romans 1:17 , Galatians 3:11 ). The believing Jew, though God's promise tarry, will wait for it; the unbelieving "draws back," as Hebrews 10:38 expresses it. The sense, in MAURER'S view, which accords better with the context ( Habakkuk 2:5 , &c.). is: the Chaldean, though for a time seeming to prosper, yet being lifted up with haughty unbelief ( Habakkuk 1:11 Habakkuk 1:16 ), is not upright; that is, has no right stability of soul resting on God, to ensure permanence of prosperity; hence, though for a time executing God's judgments, he at last becomes "lifted up" so as to attribute to his own power what is the work of God, and in this sense "draws back" ( Hebrews 10:38 ), becoming thereby a type of all backsliders who thereby incur God's displeasure; as the believing Jew is of all who wait for God's promises with patient faith, and so "live" (stand accepted) before God. The Hebrew accents induce BENGEL to translate, "he who is just by his faith shall live." Other manuscripts read the accents as English Version, which agrees better with Hebrew syntax.
5. Yea also, because--additional reason why the Jews may look for God punishing their Chaldean foe, namely, because . . . he is
a proud man--rather, this clause continues the reason for the Jews expecting the punishment of the Chaldeans, "because he transgresseth by wine (a besetting sin of Babylon, compare Daniel 5:1-31 , and CURTIUS [5.1]), being a proud man." Love of wine often begets a proud contempt of divine things, as in Belshazzar's case, which was the immediate cause of the fall of Babylon ( Daniel 5:2-4 Daniel 5:30 ; compare Proverbs 20:1 , 30:9 , 31:5 ).
enlargeth his desire as hell--the grave, or the unseen world, which is "never full" ( Proverbs 27:20 , 30:16 , Isaiah 5:14 ). The Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar were filled with an insatiable desire of conquest. Another reason for their punishment.
6. Shall not all these--the "nations" and "peoples" ( Habakkuk 2:5 ) "heaped unto him" by the Chaldean.
take up a parable--a derisive song. Habakkuk follows Isaiah ( Isaiah 14:4 ) and Micah ( Micah 2:4 ) in the phraseology.
against him--when dislodged from his former eminence.
Woe--The "derisive song" here begins, and continues to the end of the chapter. It is a symmetrical whole, and consists of five stanzas, the first three consisting of three verses each, the fourth of four verses, and the last of two. Each stanza has its own subject, and all except the last begin with "Woe"; and all have a closing verse introduced with "for," "because," or "but."
how long?--how long destined to retain his ill-gotten gains? But for a short time, as his fall now proves [MAURER]. "Covetousness is the greatest bane to men. For they who invade others' goods, often lose even their own" [MENANDER]. CALVIN makes "how long?" to be the cry of those groaning under the Chaldean oppression while it still lasted: How long shall such oppression be permitted to continue? But it is plainly part of the derisive song, after the Chaldean tyranny had passed away.
ladeth himself with thick clay--namely, gold and silver dug out of the "clay," of which they are a part. The covetous man in heaping them together is only lading himself with a clay burden, as he dares not enjoy them, and is always anxious about them. LEE and FULLER translate the Hebrew as a reduplicated single noun, and not two words, "an accumulation of pledges" ( Deuteronomy 24:10-13 ). The Chaldean is compared to a harsh usurer, and his ill-gotten treasures to heaps of pledges in the hands of a usurer.
7. suddenly--the answer to the question, "How long?" ( Habakkuk 2:6 ).
bite--often used of usury; so favoring LEE'S rendering ( Habakkuk 2:6 ). As the Chaldean, like a usurer, oppressed others, so other nations shall, like usurers, take pledges of, that is, spoil, him.
8. the remnant of the people--Those remaining of the peoples spoiled by thee, though but a remnant, will suffice to inflict vengeance on thee.
the violence of the land . . . city--that is, on account of thy violent oppression of the lands and cities of the earth [GROTIUS] (compare Habakkuk 2:5 Habakkuk 2:6 Habakkuk 2:12 ). The same phrase occurs in Habakkuk 2:17 , where the "land" and "city" are Judea and Jerusalem.
9. coveteth an evil covetousness--that is, a covetousness so surpassingly evil as to be fatal to himself.
to his house--greedily seizing enormous wealth, not merely for himself, but for his family, to which it is destined to be fatal. The very same "evil covetousness" that was the cause of Jehoiakim's being given up to the Chaldean oppressor ( Jeremiah 22:13 ) shall be the cause of the Chaldean's own destruction.
set his nest on high--( Numbers 24:21 , Jeremiah 49:16 , Obadiah 1:4 ). The image is from an eagle ( Job 39:27 ). The royal citadel is meant. The Chaldean built high towers, like the Babel founders, to "be delivered from the power of evil" ( Genesis 11:4 ).
10. Thou hast consulted shame . . . by cutting off many--MAURER, more literally, "Thou hast consulted shame . . . to destroy many," that is, in consulting (determining) to cut off many, thou hast consulted shame to thy house.
sinned against thy soul--that is, against thyself; thou art the guilty cause of thine own ruin ( Proverbs 8:36 , 20:2 ). They who wrong their neighbors, do much greater wrong to their own souls.
11. stone . . . cry out--personification. The very stones of thy palace built by rapine shall testify against thee ( Luke 19:40 ).
the beam out of the timber--the crossbeam or main rafter connecting the timbers in the walls.
shall answer it--namely, the stone. The stone shall begin and the crossbeam continue the cry against thy rapine.
12. buildeth a town with blood--namely, Babylon rebuilt and enlarged by blood-bought spoils (compare Daniel 4:30 ).
13. is it not of the Lord of hosts--JEHOVAH, who has at His command all the hosts of heaven and earth, is the righteous author of Babylon's destruction. "Shall not God have His turn, when cruel rapacious men have triumphed so long, though He seem now to be still?" [CALVIN].
people . . . labour in the . . . fire . . . weary themselves for . . . vanity--The Chaldeans labor at what is to be food for the fire, namely, their city and fortresses which shall be burnt. Jeremiah 51:58 adopts the same phraseology to express the vanity of the Chaldean's labor on Babylon, as doomed to the flames.
14. Adapted from Isaiah 11:9 . Here the sense is, "The Jews shall be restored and the temple rebuilt, so that God's glory in saving His people, and punishing their Chaldean foe, shall be manifested throughout the world," of which the Babylonian empire formed the greatest part; a type of the ultimate full manifestation of His glory in the final salvation of Israel and His Church, and the destruction of all their foes.
waters cover the sea--namely, the bottom of the sea; the sea-bed.
15. giveth . . . neighbour drink . . . puttest . . . bottle to him--literally, "skin," as the Easterns use "bottles" of skin for wine. MAURER, from a different Hebrew root, translates, "that pourest in thy wrath." English Version keeps up the metaphor better. It is not enough for thee to be "drunken" thyself, unless thou canst lead others into the same state. The thing meant is, that the Chaldean king, with his insatiable desires (a kind of intoxication), allured neighboring states into the same mad thirst for war to obtain booty, and then at last exposed them to loss and shame (compare Isaiah 51:17 , Obadiah 1:16 ). An appropriate image of Babylon, which at last fell during a drunken revel ( Daniel 5:1-31 ).
that thou mayest look on their nakedness!--with light, like Ham of old ( Genesis 9:22 ).
16. art filled--now that thou art fallen. "Thou art filled" indeed (though so insatiable), but it is "with shame."
shame for glory--instead of thy former glory ( Hosea 4:7 ).
drink thou also--The cup of sorrow is now in thy turn to pass to thee ( Jeremiah 25:15-17 , Lamentations 4:21 ).
thy foreskin--expressing in Hebrew feeling the most utter contempt. So of Goliath ( 1 Samuel 17:36 ). It is not merely thy "nakedness," as in Habakkuk 2:15 , that shall be "uncovered," but the foreskin, the badge of thy being an uncircumcised alien from God. The same shall be done to thee, as thou didst to others, and worse.
cup . . . shall be turned unto thee--literally, "shall turn itself," namely, from the nations whom thou hast made to drink it. "Thou shalt drink it all, so that it may be turned as being drained" [GROTIUS].
shameful spewing--that is, vomiting; namely, that of the king of Babylon, compelled to disgorge the spoil he had swallowed. It expresses also the ignominious state of Babylon in its calamity ( Jeremiah 25:27 ). "Be drunken, spew, and fall." Less appropriately it is explained of the foe spewing in the face of the Babylonian king.
17. the violence of Lebanon--thy "violence" against "Lebanon," that is, Jerusalem ( Isaiah 37:24 , Jeremiah 22:23 , Ezekiel 17:3 Ezekiel 17:12 ; for Lebanon's cedars were used in building the temple and houses of Jerusalem; and its beauty made it a fit type of the metropolis), shall fall on thine own head.
cover--that is, completely overwhelm.
the spoil of beasts, which made them afraid--MAURER explains, "the spoiling inflicted on the beasts of Lebanon (that is, on the people of Jerusalem, of which city 'Lebanon' is the type), which made them afraid (shall cover thee)." But it seems inappropriate to compare the elect people to "beasts." I therefore prefer explaining, "the spoiling of beasts," that is, such as is inflicted on beasts caught in a net, and "which makes them afraid (shall cover thee)." Thus the Babylonians are compared to wild beasts terrified at being caught suddenly in a net. In cruel rapacity they resembled wild beasts. The ancients read, "the spoiling of wild beasts shall make THEE afraid." Or else explain, "the spoiling of beasts (the Medes and Persians) which (inflicted by thee) made them afraid (shall in turn cover thyself--revert on thyself from them)." This accords better with the parallel clause, "the violence of Lebanon," that is, inflicted by thee on Lebanon. As thou didst hunt men as wild beasts, so shalt thou be hunted thyself as a wild beast, which thou resemblest in cruelty.
because of men's blood--shed by thee; repeated from Habakkuk 2:8 . But here the "land" and "city" are used of Judea and Jerusalem: not of the earth and cities generally, as in Habakkuk 2:8 .
the violence of the land, &c.--that is, inflicted on the land by thee.
18. The powerlessness of the idols to save Babylon from its doom is a fitting introduction to the last stanza ( Habakkuk 2:19 ), which, as the former four, begins with "Woe."
teacher of lies--its priests and prophets uttering lying oracles, as if from it.
make dumb idols--Though men can "make" idols, they cannot make them speak.
19. Awake--Arise to my help.
it shall teach!--rather, An exclamation of the prophet, implying an ironical question to which a negative answer must be given. What! "It teach?" Certainly not [MAURER]. Or, "It (the idol itself) shall (that is, ought to) teach you that it is deaf, and therefore no God" [CALVIN]. Compare "they are their own witnesses" ( Isaiah 44:9 ).
Behold--The Hebrew is nominative, "There it is" [HENDERSON].
it is laid over with gold . . . no breath . . . in the midst--Outside it has some splendor, within none.
20. But the Lord--JEHOVAH; in striking contrast with the idols.
in his holy temple--"His place" ( Isaiah 26:21 ); heaven ( Psalms 11:4 , Jonah 2:7 , Micah 1:2 ). The temple at Jerusalem is a type of it, and there God is to be worshipped. He does not lie hid under gold and silver, as the idols of Babylon, but reigns in heaven and fills heaven, and thence succors His people.
keep silence--in token of reverent submission and subjection to His judgments ( Job 40:4 , Psalms 76:8 , Zephaniah 1:7 , Zechariah 2:13 ).