The Family of Elkanah

1 There was a certain man from Ramathaim Zophim, from the hill country of Ephraim, whose name was Elkanah the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephraimite.a

References for 1 Samuel 1:1

    • a 1:1 - Or "Ephrathite"
      2 He had two wives; the name of the first [was] Hannah, and the name of the second [was] Peninnah. Now Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children.
      3 Now this man used to go up from his town {year by year}b to worship and to sacrifice to Yahweh of hosts in Shiloh, {where}c the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, [were] priests to Yahweh.

      References for 1 Samuel 1:3

        • b 1:3 - Literally "from days to days"
        • c 1:3 - Literally "and there"
          4 {On}d the day Elkanah sacrificed, he would give portions to his wife Peninnah and to all her sons and daughters.

          References for 1 Samuel 1:4

            • d 1:4 - Literally "And it happened on"
              5 But to Hannah he would give {a double portion},e because he loved Hannah, though Yahweh had closed her womb.

              References for 1 Samuel 1:5

                • e 1:5 - Literally "a portion of two faces"
                  6 (Now her rival wife would provoke her severely in order to upset her because Yahweh had closed her womb.)
                  7 And so he used to dof year after year; {whenever}g she went up to the house of Yahweh, sheh would provoke her so that shei would weep and would not eat.

                  References for 1 Samuel 1:7

                    • f 1:7 - So Hebrew; because of the abrupt change of subject some revocalize the verb to read "it used to be"
                    • g 1:7 - Or "as often as"; literally "from enough"
                    • h 1:7 - That is, Penninah
                    • i 1:7 - That is, Hannah
                      8 So Elkanah her husband would say to her: "Hannah, why do you weep and why do you not eat? And {why are you heartsick}?j Am I not better to you than ten sons?"

                      References for 1 Samuel 1:8

                        • j 1:8 - Literally "why [is] your heart evil"
                          9 Then Hannah got up after eating and drinking at Shiloh. (Now Eli the priest [was] sitting on his chair by the doorpost of the templek of Yahweh.)

                          References for 1 Samuel 1:9

                            • k 1:9 - This is not the temple of Solomon (ca. 966 bc), but rather the tabernacle that first resided at Shiloh after the conquest of Joshua.
                              10 She [was] {deeply troubled},l so she prayed to Yahweh and wept bitterly.

                              References for 1 Samuel 1:10

                                • l 1:10 - Literally "bitter of soul"
                                  11 She {made a vow}m and said: "O Yahweh of hosts, if you will look with compassion on the misery of your female servant, and will remember me, and not forget your female servant, and will give to your female servant {a male child}n then I will give him to Yahweh all the days of his life, and a razor will never pass over his head."o

                                  References for 1 Samuel 1:11

                                    • m 1:11 - Literally "vowed a vow"
                                    • n 1:11 - Literally "an offspring of men"
                                    • o 1:11 - "A razor will never pass over his head" indicates that Hannah promised to dedicate her son to Yahweh as a Nazirite, according to the terms of Num 6:1-21
                                      12 {While}p she continued to pray before Yahweh, Eli was observing her mouth.

                                      References for 1 Samuel 1:12

                                        • p 1:12 - Literally "And it happened that when"
                                          13 Now Hannah had been speaking in her heart; her lips [were] moving, but her voice could not be heard, so Eli considered her [to be] drunk.
                                          14 Then Eli said to her, "How long will you behave like someone [who is] drunk? Put away your wine!"
                                          15 But Hannah answered and said, "No, my lord. I am a woman {deeply distressed},q but I have not drunk wine [or] strong drink. [Rather], I have poured out my soul before Yahweh.

                                          References for 1 Samuel 1:15

                                            • q 1:15 - Literally "difficult of spirit"
                                              16 Do not regard your female servant as {worthless},r but because of the extent of my worries and my provocation I have spoken all of this."

                                              References for 1 Samuel 1:16

                                                • r 1:16 - Literally "as a daughter of Belial/daughter of worthlessness"
                                                  17 Then Eli answered and said, "Go in peace, and may the God of Israel grant your request that you have asked of him."
                                                  18 And she said, "May your female slave find favor in your sight." Then the woman went on her way and ate [something], and {her face did not look sad any longer}.s

                                                  References for 1 Samuel 1:18

                                                    • s 1:18 - Literally "her faces were not for her [any] longer"

                                                      The Birth of Samuel

                                                      19 Then they rose early in the morning and worshiped before Yahweh {and returned}t to their house at Ramah. Then Elkanah {had sexual relations with}u Hannah his wife, and Yahweh remembered her.

                                                      References for 1 Samuel 1:19

                                                        • t 1:19 - Literally "and they returned and went"
                                                        • u 1:19 - Literally "knew"
                                                          20 {In due time},v Hannah conceived and gave birth to a son. She called his name Samuel, for [she said], "I requested him from Yahweh."

                                                          References for 1 Samuel 1:20

                                                            • v 1:20 - Literally "At the turning of the days"
                                                              21 So the man Elkanah went up with all his household {to make the annual sacrifice}w to Yahweh and [to pay] his vow.

                                                              References for 1 Samuel 1:21

                                                                • w 1:21 - Literally "to sacrifice the sacrifice of days"
                                                                  22 But Hannah did not go up, for she said to her husband, "Once the boy [is] weaned, I will bring him, so that he may appear before Yahweh; and he will remain there forever."
                                                                  23 So her husband Elkanah said to her, "{Do what seems right to you};x stay until you wean him. Only may Yahweh fulfill his word." So the woman remained and nursed her son until she weaned him.

                                                                  References for 1 Samuel 1:23

                                                                    • x 1:23 - Literally "do what [is] good in your eyes"
                                                                      24 Then she brought him up with her when she had weaned him, [along] with three bulls, one ephah of flour, and a skiny of wine. She brought him to the house of Yahweh at Shiloh while the boy [was still] young.

                                                                      References for 1 Samuel 1:24

                                                                        • y 1:24 - Or "a [clay] jar"
                                                                          25 They slaughtered the bull, and they brought the boy to Eli.
                                                                          26 She said, "Excuse me, my lord. As {you live},z my lord, I [am] the woman who stood with you in this [place] to pray to Yahweh.

                                                                          References for 1 Samuel 1:26

                                                                            • z 1:26 - Literally "your soul lives"
                                                                              27 I prayed for this boy, and Yahweh has given me my request that I asked from him.
                                                                              28 I in turn have lent him to Yahweh. {As long as he lives}{ he [is] lent to Yahweh." Then they worshiped Yahweh there.

                                                                              References for 1 Samuel 1:28

                                                                                • { 1:28 - Literally "All the days that he lives"