Acts 7 LEB

Stephen’s Defense

1 And the high priest said, "Is it so concerning these [things]?"

References for Acts 7:1

      2 So he said, "Men--brothers and fathers--listen: The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham [while he]a was in Mesopotamia, before he settled in Haran,

      References for Acts 7:2

        • Ĥ 7:2 - *Here "[while]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("was") which is understood as temporal
          3 and said to him, 'Go out from your land and from your relatives and come to the land that I will show you.'
          4 Then he went out from the land of the Chaldeans [and]b settled in Haran. And from there, after his father died, he caused him to move to this land in which you now live.

          References for Acts 7:4

            • ĥ 7:4 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("went out") has been translated as a finite verb
              5 And he did not give him an inheritance in it--not even a footstepc--and he promised to give [it]d to him for his possession, and to his descendants after him, {although he did not have}ef a child.

              References for Acts 7:5

                • Ħ 7:5 - Literally "a step of a foot"
                • ħ 7:5 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                • Ĩ 7:5 - Literally "not being to him"
                • ĩ 7:5 - *Here "[although]" is supplied in the translation as a component of the participle ("was") which is understood as concessive
                  6 But God spoke like this: 'His descendants will be foreigners in a foreign land, and they will enslave them and mistreat [them]g four hundred years,

                  References for Acts 7:6

                    • Ī 7:6 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                      7 and the nation {that}h they will serve as slaves, I will judge,' God said, 'and after these [things] they will come outi and will worship me in this place.'j

                      References for Acts 7:7

                        • ī 7:7 - Literally "to which"
                        • Ĭ 7:7 - Verses 6-7 are a quotation from Gen 15:13-14
                        • ĭ 7:7 - The final phrase is an allusion to Exod 3:12
                          8 And he gave him the covenant of circumcision, and so he became the father of Isaac and circumcised him on the eighth day, and Isaac [did so with]k Jacob, and Jacob [did so with]l the twelve patriarchs.

                          References for Acts 7:8

                            • Į 7:8 - *Here the words "[did so with]" are not in the Greek text but are implied; in view of the "covenant of circumcision" mentioned earlier in the verse, it is probable that circumcision and not just fatherhood is involved
                            • į 7:8 - *Here the words "[did so with]" are not in the Greek text but are implied; see the note on the same phrase earlier in this verse
                              9 And the patriarchs, [because they]m were jealous of Joseph, sold [him]n into Egypt. And God was with him,

                              References for Acts 7:9

                                • İ 7:9 - *Here "[because]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("were jealous of") which is understood as causal
                                • ı 7:9 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                  10 and rescued him from all his afflictions and granted him favor and wisdom in the sight of Pharaoh king of Egypt. And he appointed him ruler over Egypt and allo his household.

                                  References for Acts 7:10

                                    • IJ 7:10 - Some manuscripts have "over all"
                                      11 And a famine came over all Egypt and Canaan and great affliction, and our fathers could not find food.
                                      12 So [when]p Jacob heard [there] was grain in Egypt, he sent out our fathers first.

                                      References for Acts 7:12

                                        • ij 7:12 - *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("heard") which is understood as temporal
                                          13 And on the second [visit]q Joseph was made known to his brothers, and the family of Joseph became known to Pharaoh.

                                          References for Acts 7:13

                                            • Ĵ 7:13 - *The word "[visit]" is not in the Greek text but is implied
                                              14 So Joseph sent [and]r summoned his father Jacob and all [his]s relatives, seventy-five persons in [all].

                                              References for Acts 7:14

                                                • ĵ 7:14 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("sent") has been translated as a finite verb
                                                • Ķ 7:14 - *Literally "the"; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
                                                  15 And Jacob went down to Egypt and died, he and our fathers.
                                                  16 And they were brought back to Shechem and buried in the tomb that Abraham had bought for a sum of silver from the sons of Hamor in Shechem.
                                                  17 "But as the time of the promise that God had made to Abraham was drawing near, the people increased and multiplied in Egypt
                                                  18 until another king arose over Egypt who did not know Joseph.
                                                  19 This man deceitfully took advantage of ourt people [and]u mistreated our ancestors, {causing them to abandon their infants}v so that they would not be kept alive.

                                                  References for Acts 7:19

                                                    • ķ 7:19 - *Literally "the"; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
                                                    • ĸ 7:19 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("deceitfully took advantage of") has been translated as a finite verb
                                                    • Ĺ 7:19 - Literally "making their infants be abandoned"
                                                      20 At this time Moses was born, and he was beautiful to God. {He}w was brought up [for] three months in [his]x father's house,

                                                      References for Acts 7:20

                                                        • ĺ 7:20 - Literally "who"
                                                        • Ļ 7:20 - *Literally "the"; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
                                                          21 and [when]y he was abandoned, the daughter of Pharaoh took him [up] and brought him [up] {as her own son}.z

                                                          References for Acts 7:21

                                                            • ļ 7:21 - *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle ("was abandoned")
                                                            • Ľ 7:21 - Literally "for a son to herself"
                                                              22 And Moses was educated in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was powerful in his words and deeds.
                                                              23 "But when {he was forty years old},{ it entered in his heart to visit his brothers, the sons of Israel.

                                                              References for Acts 7:23

                                                                • ľ 7:23 - Literally "a period of time of forty years was fulfilled for him"
                                                                  24 And [when he]| saw one of them being unjustly harmed, he defended [him]} and {avenged}~ the one who had been oppressed [by] striking down the Egyptian.

                                                                  References for Acts 7:24

                                                                    • Ŀ 7:24 - *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("saw") which is understood as temporal
                                                                    • ŀ 7:24 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                                    • Ł 7:24 - Literally "produced vengeance [for]"
                                                                    • ł 7:24 - *Here "[by]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("striking down") which is understood as means
                                                                      25 And he thought his€ brothers would understand that God was granting deliverance to them by his hand, but they did not understand.

                                                                      References for Acts 7:25

                                                                        • Ń 7:25 - *Literally "the"; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
                                                                          26 And on the following day, he made an appearance to them [while they] were fighting and was attempting to reconcile‚ them in peace, saying, 'Men [and] brothers, why are you doing wrong to one another?'

                                                                          References for Acts 7:26

                                                                            • ń 7:26 - *Here "[while]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("were fighting") which is understood as temporal
                                                                            • Ņ 7:26 - *Here the imperfect verb has been translated as conative ("was attempting to reconcile")
                                                                              27 But the one who was doing wrong to [his]ƒ neighbor pushed him aside, saying, 'Who appointed you a ruler and a judge over us?

                                                                              References for Acts 7:27

                                                                                • ņ 7:27 - *Literally "the"; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
                                                                                  28 You do not want to do away with me {the same way}„ you did away with the Egyptian yesterday, [do you]?'…

                                                                                  References for Acts 7:28

                                                                                    • Ň 7:28 - Literally "in the manner in which"
                                                                                    • ň 7:28 - A quotation from Exod 2:14; the negative construction in Greek anticipates a negative answer here, indicated by "[do you]"
                                                                                      29 And at this statement, Moses fled and became a foreigner in the land of Midian, where he became the father of two sons.
                                                                                      30 "And [when]† forty years had been completed, an angel appeared to him in the desert of Mount Sinai in the flame of a burning bush.

                                                                                      References for Acts 7:30

                                                                                        • ʼn 7:30 - *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle ("had been completed")
                                                                                          31 And [when]‡ Moses saw [it],ˆ he was astonished at the sight, and [when]‰ he approached to look at [it],Š the voice of the Lord came:

                                                                                          References for Acts 7:31

                                                                                            • Ŋ 7:31 - *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("saw") which is understood as temporal
                                                                                            • ŋ 7:31 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                                                            • Ō 7:31 - *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle ("approached")
                                                                                            • ō 7:31 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                                                              32 'I [am] the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob!'‹ So Moses began trembling [and]Œ did not dare to look at [it].

                                                                                              References for Acts 7:32

                                                                                                • Ŏ 7:32 - A quotation from Exod 3:6
                                                                                                • ŏ 7:32 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("began") has been translated as a finite verb
                                                                                                • Ő 7:32 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                                                                  33 And the Lord said to him, 'Untie the sandals from your feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy ground.
                                                                                                  34 {I have certainly seen}Ž the mistreatment of my people [who are] in Egypt and have heard their groaning, and I have come down to deliver them. And now come, I will send you to Egypt.'

                                                                                                  References for Acts 7:34

                                                                                                    • ő 7:34 - Literally "seeing I have seen"
                                                                                                    • Œ 7:34 - A quotation from Exod 3:5, 7-8, 10
                                                                                                      35 This Moses whom they had repudiated, saying, 'Who appointed you a ruler and a judge?'--this man God sent [as] both ruler and redeemer with {the help}‘ of the angel who appeared to him in the bush.

                                                                                                      References for Acts 7:35

                                                                                                        • œ 7:35 - A quotation from Exod 2:14 (see v. 27 above)
                                                                                                        • Ŕ 7:35 - Literally "hand"
                                                                                                          36 This man led them out, performing wonders and signs in the land of Egypt and at the Red Sea and in the wilderness [for] forty years.
                                                                                                          37 "This is the Moses who said to the sons of Israel, 'God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your brothers.'’

                                                                                                          References for Acts 7:37

                                                                                                            • ŕ 7:37 - A quotation from Deut 18:15
                                                                                                              38 This is the one who was in the congregation in the wilderness with the angel who spoke to him at Mount Sinai, and who [with] our fathers received living oracles to give to us,
                                                                                                              39 to whom our fathers were not willing to become obedient, but rejected [him]“ and turned [back] in their hearts to Egypt,

                                                                                                              References for Acts 7:39

                                                                                                                • Ŗ 7:39 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                                                                                  40 saying to Aaron, 'Make us gods who will go on before us! For this Moses, who led us out from the land of Egypt--we do not know what has happened to him!'”

                                                                                                                  References for Acts 7:40

                                                                                                                    • ŗ 7:40 - A quotation from Exod 32:1, 23
                                                                                                                      41 And they manufactured a calf in those days, and offered up a sacrifice to the idol, and began rejoicing• in the works of their hands.

                                                                                                                      References for Acts 7:41

                                                                                                                        • Ř 7:41 - *The imperfect tense has been translated as ingressive here ("began rejoicing")
                                                                                                                          42 But God turned away and gave them over to worship the host of heaven, just as it is written in the book of the prophets: 'You did not bring offerings and sacrifices to me [for] forty years in the wilderness, [did you], house of Israel?
                                                                                                                          43 And you took along the tabernacle– of Moloch and the star of the god— Rephan, the images that you made, to worship them, and I will deport you beyond Babylon!'˜

                                                                                                                          References for Acts 7:43

                                                                                                                            • ř 7:43 - Or "tent"
                                                                                                                            • Ś 7:43 - Some manuscripts have "of your god"
                                                                                                                            • ś 7:43 - A quotation from Amos 5:25-27
                                                                                                                              44 The tabernacle of the testimony {belonged}™ to our fathers in the wilderness, just as the one who spoke to Moses directed [him]š to make it according to the design that he had seen,

                                                                                                                              References for Acts 7:44

                                                                                                                                • Ŝ 7:44 - Literally "was"
                                                                                                                                • ŝ 7:44 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                                                                                                  45 and which, [after]› receiving [it]œ in turn, our fathers brought in with Joshua {when they dispossessed the} nations that God drove out from the presence of our fathers, until the days of David,

                                                                                                                                  References for Acts 7:45

                                                                                                                                    • Ş 7:45 - *Here "[after]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("receiving") which is understood as temporal
                                                                                                                                    • ş 7:45 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                                                                                                    • Š 7:45 - Literally "in the possession of the"
                                                                                                                                      46 who found favor in the sight of God and asked to find a habitation for the God of Jacob.ž

                                                                                                                                      References for Acts 7:46

                                                                                                                                        • š 7:46 - Some manuscripts have "for the house of Jacob"
                                                                                                                                          47 But Solomon built a house for him.
                                                                                                                                          48 But the Most High does not live in [houses]Ÿ made by human hands, just as the prophet says,

                                                                                                                                          References for Acts 7:48

                                                                                                                                            • Ţ 7:48 - Or "temples made by human hands"; either word ("houses" or "temples") is understood here
                                                                                                                                              49 'Heaven [is] my throne and earth [is] the footstool for my feet. What kind of house will you build for me, says the Lord, or what [is the] place of my rest?
                                                                                                                                              50 Did not my hand make all these [things]?' 

                                                                                                                                              References for Acts 7:50

                                                                                                                                                • ţ 7:50 - A quotation from Isa 66:1-2
                                                                                                                                                  51 "[You] stiff-necked [people] and uncircumcised in hearts and in [your]¡ ears! You constantly resist the Holy Spirit! As your fathers [did], [so] also [do] you!

                                                                                                                                                  References for Acts 7:51

                                                                                                                                                    • Ť 7:51 - *Literally "the"; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
                                                                                                                                                      52 Which of the prophets did your fathers not persecute? And they killed those who announced beforehand about the coming of the Righteous One, whose betrayers and murderers you have now become,
                                                                                                                                                      53 [you] who received the law by directions of angels and have not observed [it]!"

                                                                                                                                                      Stephen’s Martyrdom

                                                                                                                                                      54 Now [when they]¢ heard these [things], they were infuriated in their hearts and gnashed [their]£ teeth at him.

                                                                                                                                                      References for Acts 7:54

                                                                                                                                                        • ť 7:54 - *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("heard") which is understood as temporal
                                                                                                                                                        • Ŧ 7:54 - *Literally "the"; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
                                                                                                                                                          55 But he, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked intently into heaven [and]¤ saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God.

                                                                                                                                                          References for Acts 7:55

                                                                                                                                                            • ŧ 7:55 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("looked intently") has been translated as a finite verb
                                                                                                                                                              56 And he said, "Behold, I see the heavens opened and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God!"
                                                                                                                                                              57 But crying out with a loud voice, they stopped their ears and rushed at him with one purpose.
                                                                                                                                                              58 And [after they]¥ had driven [him]¦ out of the city, they began to stone§ [him],¨ and the witnesses laid aside their cloaks at the feet of a young man named Saul.

                                                                                                                                                              References for Acts 7:58

                                                                                                                                                                • Ũ 7:58 - *Here "[after]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("had driven") which is understood as temporal
                                                                                                                                                                • ũ 7:58 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                                                                                                                                • Ū 7:58 - *The imperfect tense has been translated as ingressive here ("began stoning")
                                                                                                                                                                • ū 7:58 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                                                                                                                                  59 And they kept on stoning Stephen [as he]© was calling out and saying, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!"

                                                                                                                                                                  References for Acts 7:59

                                                                                                                                                                    • Ŭ 7:59 - *Here "[as]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("was calling out") which is understood as temporal
                                                                                                                                                                      60 And falling to [his]ª knees, he cried out with a loud voice, "Lord, do not hold this sin against them!" And [after he]« said this, he fell asleep.¬

                                                                                                                                                                      References for Acts 7:60

                                                                                                                                                                        • ŭ 7:60 - *Literally "the"; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
                                                                                                                                                                        • Ů 7:60 - *Here "[after]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("said") which is understood as temporal
                                                                                                                                                                        • ů 7:60 - Or "he passed away"