1 These [are] the words that Moses spoke to all [of] Israel {on the other side of}a the Jordan in the desert,b in the desert plateauc opposite Suph, between Paran and between Tophel and Laban and Hazeroth and Dizahab.
References for Deuteronomy 1:1
    • a 1:1 - Literally "in the beyond [of]"
    • b 1:1 - Or "the wilderness"
    • c 1:1 - Or "desert plain"; others render this as a named location, "Arabah"
      2 It is [a journey of] {eleven days}d from Herob {by the way of Mount Seir}e up to Kadesh Barnea.
      References for Deuteronomy 1:2
        • d 1:2 - Literally "one and ten days"
        • e 1:2 - Literally "by the mountain of Seir"
          3 {And it was}f in the fortieth year, on the eleventh month, on [the] first [day] of the month, Moses spoke to the {Israelites}g according to all that Yahweh had instructed him [to speak] to them.
          References for Deuteronomy 1:3
            • f 1:3 - Literally "and it happened" or "and then"
            • g 1:3 - Literally "sons/children of Israel"
              4 [This happened] {after defeating}h Sihon king of the Amorites, who [was] reigningi in Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, who [was] reigningj in Ashtaroth in Edrei.
              References for Deuteronomy 1:4
                • h 1:4 - Literally "after he had struck down"
                • i 1:4 - Or "dwelling," and in this context "reigning"
                • j 1:4 - Or "dwelling," and in this context "reigning"
                  5 On the other side of k the Jordan in the land of Moab Moses began to explain this law,l {saying}:m
                  References for Deuteronomy 1:5
                    • k 1:5 - Literally "in the beyond [of]"
                    • l 1:5 - Hebrew torah
                    • m 1:5 - Literally "to say"

                      Historical Prologue

                      6 "Yahweh our God spoke to us at Horeb, {saying},n 'You have stayed {long enough}o at this mountain.
                      References for Deuteronomy 1:6
                        • n 1:6 - Literally "to say"
                        • o 1:6 - Literally "much [time]"
                          7 Turn [now] and {move on},p and go [into] the hill of the Amoritesq and to all [of] the neighboring regionsr in the Jordan {Valley}s in the hill country and in the Negev and in the coastal area along the sea, [into] the land of the Canaanitest and [into] the Lebanon, as far as the great river Euphrates.
                          References for Deuteronomy 1:7
                            • p 1:7 - Literally "journey on with respect to yourselves" or "move yourselves out"
                            • q 1:7 - Hebrew "Amorite"
                            • r 1:7 - Or "peoples"
                            • s 1:7 - Literally "Arabah," arid stretches of land.
                            • t 1:7 - Hebrew "Canaanite"
                              8 Look, I have set the land {before you};u go and take possession of the land that Yahweh swore to your ancestors,v to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give [it] to them and to their offspring after them.'
                              References for Deuteronomy 1:8
                                • u 1:8 - Literally "before your face"
                                • v 1:8 - Or "fathers"
                                  9 "And I spoke to them at that time, {saying},w 'I am not able to bear you alone.
                                  References for Deuteronomy 1:9
                                    • w 1:9 - Literally "to say"
                                      10 Yahweh your God has multiplied you, and look; you [are] today as the stars of the heaven {in number}.x
                                      References for Deuteronomy 1:10
                                        • x 1:10 - Literally "with respect to multitude/abundance"
                                          11 Yahweh, the God of your ancestors,y may he add to you as you are [now] a thousand times, and may he bless you just as he {promised you}.z
                                          References for Deuteronomy 1:11
                                            • y 1:11 - Or "fathers"
                                            • z 1:11 - Literally "spoke to you"
                                              12 How can I bear you {by myself},{ your burden and your load and your strife?
                                              References for Deuteronomy 1:12
                                                • { 1:12 - Literally "to me alone"
                                                  13 Choose for yourselves {wise and discerning and knowledgeable men}| for [each of] your tribes, and I will appoint them as your leaders.'
                                                  References for Deuteronomy 1:13
                                                    • | 1:13 - Literally "men wise and discerning and knowledgeable"
                                                      14 "And you answered me, and you said, 'The thing you have said to do is good.'
                                                      15 And so I took the leaders of your tribes, wise and knowledgeable men, and [then] I appointed them as leaders over you [as] commanders of [groups of] thousands and commanders of [groups of] hundreds and commanders of [groups of] fifties and commanders of [groups of] tens [as] officials for your tribes.
                                                      16 And at that time I instructed your judges, saying, '{hear out your fellow men},} and [then] judge fairly~ between a man and between his brother and between {his opponent who is a resident alien}.
                                                      References for Deuteronomy 1:16
                                                        • } 1:16 - Literally "hear between your brothers," with the idea of listening carefully in this context
                                                        • ~ 1:16 - Or "righteously"
                                                        •  1:16 - Literally "between his resident alien/non-Israelite who dwells temporarily among Israel"
                                                          17 You must not {be partial}€ {in your judgment};  hear [out] the small [person] as [also] the great [person]; {do not be intimidated by any person},‚ because the judgment [is] God's; and the case that is too difficultƒ for you, bring [it] to me, and I will hear it [out].'
                                                          References for Deuteronomy 1:17
                                                            • € 1:17 - Literally "recognize faces"
                                                            •  1:17 - Literally "in the process of rendering a judgment"
                                                            • ‚ 1:17 - Literally "do not fear before the faces of [any] man"
                                                            • ƒ 1:17 - Or "hard"
                                                              18 And so I instructed you at that time [concerning] all [of] the things that you should do.
                                                              19 "Then we set out from Horeb, and we went [through] the whole [of] that great and terrible desert that you saw [on] the way [to] the hill country of the Amorites„ as Yahweh our God had commanded us, and [so] we came up to Kadesh Barnea.
                                                              References for Deuteronomy 1:19
                                                                • „ 1:19 - Hebrew "Amorite"
                                                                  20 I said to you, '{You have reached}… the hill country of the Amorites† that Yahweh our God [is] giving to us.
                                                                  References for Deuteronomy 1:20
                                                                    • … 1:20 - Literally "You have come up to"
                                                                    • † 1:20 - Hebrew "Amorite"
                                                                      21 See, Yahweh your God has set before you the land; go up and possess [it] as Yahweh the God of your ancestors‡ said to you; do not fear and do not be dismayed.'
                                                                      References for Deuteronomy 1:21
                                                                        • ‡ 1:21 - Or "fathers"
                                                                          22 "Then all of you approached me, and [you] said, 'Let us send men {before us},ˆ and let them explore the land for us, and let them bring back {a report}‰ to us [concerning] the way that {we should take}Š [and concerning] the cities that we shall come to.'
                                                                          References for Deuteronomy 1:22
                                                                            • ˆ 1:22 - Literally "before our faces" or "ahead of us"
                                                                            • ‰ 1:22 - Literally "a word"
                                                                            • Š 1:22 - Literally "we should go up by it"
                                                                              23 The plan was good {in my opinion},‹ and [so] I took from [among] you twelve men, {one from each tribe}.Œ
                                                                              References for Deuteronomy 1:23
                                                                                • ‹ 1:23 - Literally "in my eyes"
                                                                                • Œ 1:23 - Literally "man one from the tribe"
                                                                                  24 And they {set out} and {went up into the hill country},Ž and they went up to the wadi of Eschol, and they spied out [the land].
                                                                                  References for Deuteronomy 1:24
                                                                                    •  1:24 - Literally "turned"
                                                                                    • Ž 1:24 - Literally "went up toward the hill [country] mountain"
                                                                                    •  1:24 - A valley that is dry most of the year, but contains a stream during the rainy season
                                                                                      25 They took in their hands {some of the fruit}‘ of the land, and they brought [it] down to us, and they brought to us back {a report},’ and they said, 'The land that Yahweh our God [is] giving to us [is] good.'
                                                                                      References for Deuteronomy 1:25
                                                                                        •  1:25 - Hebrew "hand"
                                                                                        • ‘ 1:25 - Literally "from the fruit"
                                                                                        • ’ 1:25 - Literally "a word"
                                                                                          26 But you were not willing to go up, and you rebelled against the {command}“ of Yahweh your God.
                                                                                          References for Deuteronomy 1:26
                                                                                            • “ 1:26 - Literally "mouth"
                                                                                              27 And you grumbled in your tents, and you said, 'Because of the hatred of Yahweh [toward] us he has brought us out from the land of Egypt to give us into the hand of the Amorites” to destroy us.
                                                                                              References for Deuteronomy 1:27
                                                                                                • ” 1:27 - Hebrew "Amorite"
                                                                                                  28 Where [can] we go up? Our brothers have {made our hearts melt},• {saying},– "The people are greater— and taller than we are,˜ [and there are] great fortified cities [reaching] up to heaven, and we saw the sons of the Anakites [living] there." '
                                                                                                  References for Deuteronomy 1:28
                                                                                                    • • 1:28 - Literally "caused to melt our hearts"
                                                                                                    • – 1:28 - Literally "to say"
                                                                                                    • — 1:28 - Or "bigger"
                                                                                                    • ˜ 1:28 - Hebrew "than us"
                                                                                                      29 "And so I said to you, 'Do not be terrified, and do not fear them.
                                                                                                      30 Yahweh your God, who is going {before you},™ will himselfš fight for you, {just as}› he did for you in Egypt before your eyes,
                                                                                                      References for Deuteronomy 1:30
                                                                                                        • ™ 1:30 - Literally "to your faces"
                                                                                                        • š 1:30 - The Hebrew pronoun indicates emphasis
                                                                                                        • › 1:30 - Literally "like all that"
                                                                                                          31 and [just as he did] in the wildernessœ when you saw thatž Yahweh your God carried you, just as someoneŸ carries his son, all [along] the way [that] you traveled until {you reached}  this place.'
                                                                                                          References for Deuteronomy 1:31
                                                                                                            • œ 1:31 - Or "desert"
                                                                                                            •  1:31 - Or "where"
                                                                                                            • ž 1:31 - Or "how"
                                                                                                            • Ÿ 1:31 - Or "a man"
                                                                                                            •   1:31 - Literally "you came"
                                                                                                              32 But through all of this you did not trust in Yahweh your God,
                                                                                                              33 {who goes}¡ {before you}¢ on your£ way, seeking a place for your encampment, in fire at night and in a cloud by day, to show you the way that {you should go}.¤
                                                                                                              References for Deuteronomy 1:33
                                                                                                                • ¡ 1:33 - Literally "[is] the one going"
                                                                                                                • ¢ 1:33 - Literally "before your faces"
                                                                                                                • £ 1:33 - Hebrew "the"
                                                                                                                • ¤ 1:33 - Literally "you should go in it"
                                                                                                                  34 "Then Yahweh heard the sound of your words, and he was angry, and he swore, {saying},¥
                                                                                                                  References for Deuteronomy 1:34
                                                                                                                    • ¥ 1:34 - Literally "to say"
                                                                                                                      35 'No one of these men¦ of this evil generation will see the good land that I swore to give to your ancestors,§
                                                                                                                      References for Deuteronomy 1:35
                                                                                                                        • ¦ 1:35 - The beginning of an oath in Hebrew; the text emphatically denies anyone of that evil generation the privilege of seeing the promised land
                                                                                                                        • § 1:35 - Or "fathers"
                                                                                                                          36 except Caleb, the son of Jephunneh; he himself¨ shall see it, and to him I will give the land upon which he has trodden and to his sons© because {he followed Yahweh unreservedly}.'ª
                                                                                                                          References for Deuteronomy 1:36
                                                                                                                            • ¨ 1:36 - Emphatic use of the pronoun
                                                                                                                            • © 1:36 - Or "descendants"
                                                                                                                            • ª 1:36 - Literally "he filled [his hands] after Yahweh"
                                                                                                                              37 Even with me Yahweh was angry because of you, saying, 'Not even you shall enter there.
                                                                                                                              38 Joshua, the son of Nun, {your assistant},« will go there; encourage him because he will cause Israel to inherit it.
                                                                                                                              References for Deuteronomy 1:38
                                                                                                                                • « 1:38 - Literally "the one standing before you"
                                                                                                                                  39 And your little children, who you thought shall become plunder, and your sons, who do not today know good or bad, shall themselves¬ go there, and I will give it to them, and they shall take possession of it.
                                                                                                                                  References for Deuteronomy 1:39
                                                                                                                                    • ¬ 1:39 - The Hebrew pronoun is used for emphasis
                                                                                                                                      40 But you turn and set out [in the direction of] the wilderness by way of the {Red Sea}.'­
                                                                                                                                      References for Deuteronomy 1:40
                                                                                                                                        • ­ 1:40 - Literally "sea of reeds"
                                                                                                                                          41 "You replied and said to me, 'We have sinned against Yahweh, [and now] we will go up and fight according to all that Yahweh our God commanded us'; and [so] each man fastened on {his battle gear},® and you regarded [it] as easy to go up [into] the hill country.
                                                                                                                                          References for Deuteronomy 1:41
                                                                                                                                            • ® 1:41 - Literally "his vessels of battle"
                                                                                                                                              42 So Yahweh said to me, 'Say to them, "You shall not go up, and you shall not fight because I am not in your midst; you will be defeated {before}¯ your enemies." '
                                                                                                                                              References for Deuteronomy 1:42
                                                                                                                                                • ¯ 1:42 - Literally "in the faces of your enemies"
                                                                                                                                                  43 So I spoke to you, but you did not listen; you rebelled against the {command of Yahweh};° you behaved presumptuously, and you went up into the hill country.
                                                                                                                                                  References for Deuteronomy 1:43
                                                                                                                                                    • ° 1:43 - Literally "mouth of Yahweh"
                                                                                                                                                      44 The Amorites living in the hill country went out {to oppose you}± and chased you as [a swarm of] wild honey bees do; and [so] they {beat}² you down in Seir as far as Hormah.
                                                                                                                                                      References for Deuteronomy 1:44
                                                                                                                                                        • ± 1:44 - Literally "to meet you"
                                                                                                                                                        • ² 1:44 - Literally "cut"
                                                                                                                                                          45 So you returned and wept {before Yahweh};³ but Yahweh did not listen to your voice and did not pay [any] attention to you.
                                                                                                                                                          References for Deuteronomy 1:45
                                                                                                                                                            • ³ 1:45 - Literally "before the faces of Yahweh"
                                                                                                                                                              46 You stayed in Kadesh many days; such were the days that you stayed [there].