1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, to the saints who are in Ephesusa and faithful in Christ Jesus:

References for Ephesians 1:1

    • a 1:1 - A number of the earliest and most important manuscripts omit "in Ephesus," though it is hard to make sense of the line without this phrase (cf. rsv, "to the saints who are also faithful")
      2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

      Praise to God for Spiritual Blessings

      3 Blessed [is]b the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly [places] in Christ,

      References for Ephesians 1:3

        • b 1:3 - Or "blessed [be]"
          4 just as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, [that] we should be holy and blameless before him in love,c

          References for Ephesians 1:4

            • c 1:4 - Or "before him, having predestined us in love" (the phrase "in love" could go either with v. 4 or v. 5)
              5 having predestined us to adoption through Jesus Christ to himself according to the good pleasure of his will,
              6 to the praise of the glory of his grace that he bestowed on us in the beloved,
              7 in whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace,
              8 that he caused to abound to us in all wisdom and insight,
              9 making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure that he purposed in him,
              10 for the administration of the fullness of times, to bring together all things in Christ, the things in the heavens and the things on the earth, in him
              11 in whom also we were chosen, having been predestined according to the purpose of the One who works all [things] according to the counsel of his will,
              12 [that] we who hoped beforehand in Christ should be for the praise of his glory,
              13 in whom also you, when you heardd the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, in whom also when you believed you were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit,

              References for Ephesians 1:13

                • d 1:13 - *This participle ("hearing") and the following one ("believing") are understood as temporal
                  14 who is the down payment of our inheritance, until the redemption of the possession, to the praise of his glory.

                  Prayer for Spiritual Wisdom

                  15 Because of this I also, hearing of {your faith}e in the Lord Jesus and your love for all the saints,

                  References for Ephesians 1:15

                    • e 1:15 - Literally "the according to you faith"
                      16 do not cease giving thanks for you, making mention in my prayers,
                      17 that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, {the glorious Father}f,g may give you a spirit of wisdomh and revelation in the knowledge of him

                      References for Ephesians 1:17

                        • f 1:17 - Literally "the Father of glory"
                        • g 1:17 - *Here "glorious" is an attributive genitive
                        • h 1:17 - *Or "spiritual wisdom" (with "wisdom" is an attributive genitive)
                          18 (the eyes of your hearts having been enlightened), so that you may know what is the hope of his calling, what [are] the riches of the glory of his inheritance among the saints,
                          19 and what [is] the surpassing greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to the working of his mighty strength
                          20 which he has workedi in Christ, raisingj him from the dead and seating [him]k at his right hand in the heavenly [places],

                          References for Ephesians 1:20

                            • i 1:20 - Some manuscripts have "he worked"
                            • j 1:20 - *These participles are either means ("by raising ... and seating") or temporal ("when he raised ... and seated")
                            • k 1:20 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                              21 above all rule and authority and power and lordship and every name named, not only in this age but also in the coming one,
                              22 and he subjected all [things] under his feetl and gave him [as] head over all [things] to the church,

                              References for Ephesians 1:22

                                • l 1:22 - An allusion to Ps 8:6
                                  23 which is his body, the fullness of the one who fills all [things] in every [way].