Saul was 30 years old when he became king. He ruled over Israel for 42 years.
References for 1 Samuel 13:1
He chose 3,000 of Israel's men. Two thousand of them were with him at Micmash and in the hill country of Bethel. One thousand were with Jonathan at Gibeah in the land of Benjamin. Saul sent the rest back to their homes.
Some Philistine soldiers were stationed at Geba. Jonathan attacked them. The other Philistines heard about it. Saul announced, "Let the Hebrew people hear about what has happened!" He had trumpets blown all through the land.
So all of the people of Israel heard the news. They were told, "Saul has attacked the Philistine army camp at Geba. He has made Israel smell very bad to the Philistines." The people of Israel were called out to join Saul at Gilgal.
The Philistines gathered together to fight against Israel. They had 3,000 chariots and 6,000 chariot drivers. Their soldiers were as many as the grains of sand on the seashore. They went up and camped at Micmash. It was east of Beth Aven.
The men of Israel saw that their army was in deep trouble. So they hid in caves and bushes. They hid among the rocks. They hid in pits and empty wells.
Some of them even went across the Jordan River. They went to the lands of Gad and Gilead. Saul remained at Gilgal. All of the troops who were with him were shaking with fear.
He waited seven days, just as Samuel had told him to. But Samuel didn't come to Gilgal. And Saul's men began to scatter.
So he said, "Bring me the burnt offering and the friendship offerings." Then he offered up the burnt offering.
Just as Saul finished offering the sacrifice, Samuel arrived. Saul went out to greet him.
"What have you done?" asked Samuel. Saul replied, "I saw that the men were scattering. I saw that the Philistines were gathering together at Micmash. You didn't come when you said you would.
So I thought, 'Now the Philistines will come down to attack me at Gilgal. And I haven't asked the LORD to show us his favor.' So I felt I had to sacrifice the burnt offering."
"You did a foolish thing," Samuel said. "You haven't obeyed the command the LORD your God gave you. If you had, he would have made your kingdom secure over Israel for all time to come.
But now your kingdom won't last. The LORD has already looked for a man who is dear to his heart. He has appointed him leader of his people. That's because you haven't obeyed the LORD's command."
Then Samuel left Gilgal and went up to Gibeah in the land of Benjamin. Saul counted the men who stayed with him. The total number was about 600.
Saul and his son Jonathan were staying in Gibeah in the land of Benjamin. What was left of the army was there with them. At the same time, the Philistines camped at Micmash.
References for 1 Samuel 13:16
Three groups of soldiers went out from the Philistine camp to attack Israel. One group turned and went toward Ophrah in the area of Shual.
Another went toward Beth Horon. The third went toward the border that looked out over the Valley of Zeboim. That valley faces the desert.
There weren't any blacksmiths in the whole land of Israel. That's because the Philistines had said, "The Hebrews might hire them to make swords or spears!"
So all of the people of Israel had to go down to the Philistines. They had to go to them to get their plows, hoes, axes and sickles sharpened.
It cost a fourth of an ounce of silver to sharpen a plow or a hoe. It cost an eighth of an ounce to sharpen a pitchfork or an axe. That's also what it cost to put new tips on large sticks that were used to drive oxen.
So not one of Saul's or Jonathan's soldiers had a sword or spear in his hand when he went out to battle. Only Saul and his son Jonathan had those weapons.
A group of Philistine soldiers had gone out to the pass at Micmash.
References for 1 Samuel 13:23