After Alexander son of Philip, the Macedonian, who came from the land of Kittim, had defeated King Darius of the Persians and the Medes, he succeeded him as king. (He had previously become king of Greece.)
References for 1 Maccabees 1:1
He fought many battles, conquered strongholds, and put to death the kings of the earth.
He advanced to the ends of the earth, and plundered many nations. When the earth became quiet before him, he was exalted, and his heart was lifted up.
He gathered a very strong army and ruled over countries, nations, and princes, and they became tributary to him.
After this he fell sick and perceived that he was dying.
So he summoned his most honored officers, who had been brought up with him from youth, and divided his kingdom among them while he was still alive.
And after Alexander had reigned twelve years, he died.
Then his officers began to rule, each in his own place.
They all put on crowns after his death, and so did their descendants after them for many years; and they caused many evils on the earth.
From them came forth a sinful root, Antiochus Epiphanes, son of King Antiochus; he had been a hostage in Rome. He began to reign in the one hundred thirty-seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks.
References for 1 Maccabees 1:10
In those days certain renegades came out from Israel and misled many, saying, "Let us go and make a covenant with the Gentiles around us, for since we separated from them many disasters have come upon us."
This proposal pleased them,
and some of the people eagerly went to the king, who authorized them to observe the ordinances of the Gentiles.
So they built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, according to Gentile custom,
and removed the marks of circumcision, and abandoned the holy covenant. They joined with the Gentiles and sold themselves to do evil.
When Antiochus saw that his kingdom was established, he determined to become king of the land of Egypt, in order that he might reign over both kingdoms.
So he invaded Egypt with a strong force, with chariots and elephants and cavalry and with a large fleet.
He engaged King Ptolemy of Egypt in battle, and Ptolemy turned and fled before him, and many were wounded and fell.
They captured the fortified cities in the land of Egypt, and he plundered the land of Egypt.
After subduing Egypt, Antiochus returned in the one hundred forty-third year. He went up against Israel and came to Jerusalem with a strong force.
References for 1 Maccabees 1:20
He arrogantly entered the sanctuary and took the golden altar, the lampstand for the light, and all its utensils.
He took also the table for the bread of the Presence, the cups for drink offerings, the bowls, the golden censers, the curtain, the crowns, and the gold decoration on the front of the temple; he stripped it all off.
He took the silver and the gold, and the costly vessels; he took also the hidden treasures that he found.
Taking them all, he went into his own land. He shed much blood, and spoke with great arrogance.
Israel mourned deeply in every community,
rulers and elders groaned, young women and young men became faint, the beauty of the women faded.
Every bridegroom took up the lament; she who sat in the bridal chamber was mourning.
Even the land trembled for its inhabitants, and all the house of Jacob was clothed with shame.
Two years later the king sent to the cities of Judah a chief collector of tribute, and he came to Jerusalem with a large force.
Deceitfully he spoke peaceable words to them, and they believed him; but he suddenly fell upon the city, dealt it a severe blow, and destroyed many people of Israel.
He plundered the city, burned it with fire, and tore down its houses and its surrounding walls.
They took captive the women and children, and seized the livestock.
Then they fortified the city of David with a great strong wall and strong towers, and it became their citadel.
They stationed there a sinful people, men who were renegades. These strengthened their position;
they stored up arms and food, and collecting the spoils of Jerusalem they stored them there, and became a great menace,
for the citadel became an ambush against the sanctuary, an evil adversary of Israel at all times.
References for 1 Maccabees 1:36
On every side of the sanctuary they shed innocent blood; they even defiled the sanctuary.
Because of them the residents of Jerusalem fled; she became a dwelling of strangers; she became strange to her offspring, and her children forsook her.
Her sanctuary became desolate like a desert; her feasts were turned into mourning, her sabbaths into a reproach, her honor into contempt.
Her dishonor now grew as great as her glory; her exaltation was turned into mourning.
Then the king wrote to his whole kingdom that all should be one people,
and that all should give up their particular customs.
All the Gentiles accepted the command of the king. Many even from Israel gladly adopted his religion; they sacrificed to idols and profaned the sabbath.
And the king sent letters by messengers to Jerusalem and the towns of Judah; he directed them to follow customs strange to the land,
to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and festivals,
to defile the sanctuary and the priests,
to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and other unclean animals,
and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane,
so that they would forget the law and change all the ordinances.
He added, "And whoever does not obey the command of the king shall die."
References for 1 Maccabees 1:50
In such words he wrote to his whole kingdom. He appointed inspectors over all the people and commanded the towns of Judah to offer sacrifice, town by town.
Many of the people, everyone who forsook the law, joined them, and they did evil in the land;
they drove Israel into hiding in every place of refuge they had.
Now on the fifteenth day of Chislev, in the one hundred forty-fifth year, they erected a desolating sacrilege on the altar of burnt offering. They also built altars in the surrounding towns of Judah,
References for 1 Maccabees 1:54
and offered incense at the doors of the houses and in the streets.
The books of the law that they found they tore to pieces and burned with fire.
Anyone found possessing the book of the covenant, or anyone who adhered to the law, was condemned to death by decree of the king.
They kept using violence against Israel, against those who were found month after month in the towns.
On the twenty-fifth day of the month they offered sacrifice on the altar that was on top of the altar of burnt offering.
According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised,
and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers' necks.
But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food.
They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covenant; and they did die.
Very great wrath came upon Israel.