On the seventh day, when King Xerxes was in high spirits1 from wine,2 he commanded the seven eunuchs who served him--Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona,3 Bigtha, Abagtha, Zethar and Carcas--
to bring4 before him Queen Vashti, wearing her royal crown, in order to display her beauty5 to the people and nobles, for she was lovely to look at.
But when the attendants delivered the king's command, Queen Vashti refused to come. Then the king became furious and burned with anger.613
Since it was customary for the king to consult experts in matters of law and justice, he spoke with the wise men who understood the times714
and were closest to the king--Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena and Memucan, the seven nobles8 of Persia and Media who had special access to the king and were highest in the kingdom.
"According to law, what must be done to Queen Vashti?" he asked. "She has not obeyed the command of King Xerxes that the eunuchs have taken to her."
Then Memucan replied in the presence of the king and the nobles, "Queen Vashti has done wrong, not only against the king but also against all the nobles and the peoples of all the provinces of King Xerxes.
For the queen's conduct will become known to all the women, and so they will despise their husbands and say, 'King Xerxes commanded Queen Vashti to be brought before him, but she would not come.'
This very day the Persian and Median women of the nobility who have heard about the queen's conduct will respond to all the king's nobles in the same way. There will be no end of disrespect and discord.919
"Therefore, if it pleases the king,10 let him issue a royal decree and let it be written in the laws of Persia and Media, which cannot be repealed,11 that Vashti is never again to enter the presence of King Xerxes. Also let the king give her royal position to someone else who is better than she.
Then when the king's edict is proclaimed throughout all his vast realm, all the women will respect their husbands, from the least to the greatest."
The king and his nobles were pleased with this advice, so the king did as Memucan proposed.
He sent dispatches to all parts of the kingdom, to each province in its own script and to each people in its own language,12 proclaiming in each people's tongue that every man should be ruler over his own household.