21:1 The burden of the a desert of the sea. As whirlwinds in the south pass through; [so] it cometh from the desert, b from a terrible land.
(a) On the seaside between Judea and Caldea was a wilderness, by which he means Caldea. 21:2 A grievous vision is declared to me; the c treacherous dealer dealeth treacherously, and the spoiler spoileth. Go up, O d Elam: besiege, O Media; all her sighing have I made e to cease.
(b) That is, the ruin of Babylon by the Medes and Persians.
(c) The Assyrians and Chaldeans who had destroyed other nations will be overcome by the Medes and Persians: and this he prophesied a hundred years before it came to pass. 21:3 Therefore are my f loins filled with pain: pangs have taken hold upon me, as the pangs of a woman that travaileth: I was bowed down at the hearing [of it]; I was dismayed at the seeing [of it].
(d) By Elam he means the Persians.
(e) Because they will find no comfort, they will mourn no more, or I have caused them to cease mourning, whom Babylon had afflicted.
(f) This the prophet speaks in the person of the Babylonians. 21:4 My heart panted, fearfulness terrified me: the night g of my pleasure hath he turned into fear to me.
21:5 Prepare the table, watch in the watchtower, eat, drink: h arise, ye princes, [and] anoint the shield.
(g) He prophecies the death of Belshazzar as in ( Daniel 5:30 ) who in the midst of his pleasures was destroyed.
(h) While they are eating and drinking, they will be commanded to run to their weapons. 21:6 For thus hath the i Lord said to me, Go, set a watchman, let him declare what he seeth.
(i) That is, in a vision by the spirit of prophecy. 21:7 And he saw a chariot [with] a couple of horsemen, a chariot of donkeys, [and] k a chariot of camels; and he hearkened diligently with much heed:
(k) Meaning, chariots of men of war, and others that carried the baggage. 21:8 And he cried, A l lion: My lord, I stand continually upon the watchtower in the daytime, and I am set in my post whole nights:
(l) Meaning, Darius who overcame Babylon. 21:9 And, behold, here cometh a chariot of men, [with] a couple of horsemen. And m he answered and said, Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and all the graven images of her gods he hath broken to the ground.
(m) The watchman whom Isaiah set up, told him who came toward Babylon, and the angel declared that it would be destroyed: all this was done in a vision. 21:10 O n my threshing, and the grain of my floor: that which I have heard from the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, have I declared to you.
(n) Meaning, Babylon. 21:11 The burden of o Dumah. He calleth to me out of p Seir, Watchman, what of the night? Watchman, what of the night?
21:12 The watchman said, The q morning cometh, and also the night: if ye will enquire, enquire ye: return, come.
(o) Which was a city of the Ishmaelites and was so named by Dumah, ( Genesis 25:14 ).
(p) A mountain of the Idumeans.
(q) He describes the unquietness of the people of Dumah, who were night and day in fear of their enemies, and ever ran to and fro to enquire news. 21:13 The burden upon Arabia. In r the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O ye travelling companies of Dedanim.
(r) For fear, the Arabians will flee into the woods and he appoints the way they will take. 21:14 The inhabitants of the land of Tema brought s water to him that was thirsty, they met with their bread him that fled.
(s) Signifying that for fear they will not tarry to eat or drink. 21:16 For thus hath the Lord said to me, Within a year, t according to the years of an u hireling, and all the glory of Kedar shall fail:
(t) He appoints them respite for one year only, and then they would be destroyed. 21:17 And the remainder of the number of archers, the mighty men of the children of x Kedar, shall be diminished: for the LORD God of Israel hath spoken [it].
(u) Read ( Isaiah 16:14 ).
(x) Which was the name of a people of Arabia: and by the horrible destruction of all these nations, he teaches the Jews that there is no place for refuge or to escape Gods wrath, but only to remain in his Church, and to live in his fear.