10:1 Verily, 1 verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber.
(1) Seeing that by Christ alone we have access to the Father, there are no true shepherds other than those who come to Christ themselves and bring others there also, neither is any to be thought to be in the true sheepfold but those who are gathered to Christ. 10:3 To him the a porter openeth; and the sheep hear his voice: and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out.
(a) In those days they used to have a servant always sitting at the door, and therefore he speaks after the manner of those days. 10:6 This b parable spake Jesus unto them: but they understood not what things they were which he spake unto them.
(b) This word "parable", which the evangelist uses here, signifies a hidden type of speech, when words are not used with their natural meaning, but are used to signify another thing to us. 10:8 2 All that c ever came before me are thieves and robbers: but the sheep did not hear them.
(2) It does not matter how many false teachers there have been, neither how old they have been. 10:9 3 I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall d go in and out, and find pasture.
(c) These terms must be applied to the matter he speaks of. And therefore when he calls himself the door, he calls all those thieves and robbers who take upon themselves this name of "door", which none of the prophets can do, for they showed the sheep that Christ was the door.
(3) Only Christ is the true Pastor, and those only are the true Church who acknowledge him to properly be their only Pastor: opposite to him are thieves who do not feed the sheep, but kill them: and hirelings also, who forsake the flock in time of danger, because they feed it only for their own profit and gains. 10:15 As the Father e knoweth me, even so know I the Father: and I lay down my life for the sheep.
(d) That is, will live safely, as the Jews used to speak (see ( Deuteronomy 26:6-10 )), and yet there is a special reference to the shepherds office.
(e) Loves me, allows me. 10:16 4 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be f one fold, [and] one shepherd.
(4) The calling of the Gentiles. 10:17 5 Therefore doth my Father love me, because g I lay down my life, that I might take it again.
(f) The distinguishing mark of the Christian Church throughout all the world, is that it has only one head, that is Christ, the only keeper, and only shepherd of it.
(5) Christ is by the decree of the Father the only true shepherd of the true Church, for he willingly gave his life for his sheep, and by his own power rose again to life. 10:19 6 There was a division therefore again among the Jews for these sayings.
(g) He uses the present tense because Christs whole life was as it were a perpetual death.
(6) The gospel uncovers hypocrisy, and therefore the world must necessarily rage when the gospel comes forth. 10:22 And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the h dedication, and it was winter.
(h) The feast of the dedication was instituted by Judas Maccabeus and his brethren after the restoring of Gods true religion, by the casting out of Antiochus garrison. 10:23 7 And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomons porch.
(7) The unbelievers and proud men accuse the gospel of darkness, and this very darkness is indeed within themselves. 10:25 8 Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believed not: the works that I do in my Fathers name, they bear witness of me.
(8) The doctrine of the gospel is proved from heaven by two witnesses: both by the purity of the doctrine and by miracles. 10:26 9 But ye believe not, i because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you.
(9) It is no marvel that only a few believe, seeing that all men are by nature untamed beasts: yet nonetheless God has his own, which he turns into sheep, and commits them unto his Son, and preserves them against the cruelty of all wild beasts. 10:31 10 Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him.
(i) He gives a reason why they do not believe, that is, because they are not his sheep.
10:32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I shewed you from my k Father; for which of those works do ye stone me?
(10) Christ proves his dignity by divine works.
(k) Through my Fathers authority and power. 10:35 If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be l broken;
(l) Void and of no effect. 10:39 11 Therefore they sought again to take him: but he escaped out of their hand,
(11) Christ flees danger, not because of mistrust, nor for fear of death, nor that he would be lazy, but to gather a Church in another place.