In that day sing ye unto her
The congregation of Israel, as the Targum; or rather the church of Christ; for after, and upon the destruction of his and her enemies, there will be great rejoicing and singing alternately, and by responses, as the word signifies; see ( Revelation 15:1-3 ) ( 19:1-7 ) . Gussetius F12 renders it, "afflict her"; as if spoken by the Lord to the enemies to do their worst to her, and he would take care of her, that it shall be in vain, and to no purpose, since he would keep her: A vineyard of red wine;
as the people of the Jews are compared to one, ( Isaiah 5:1-7 ) so is the church of Christ under the Gospel dispensation; see ( Song of Solomon 8:11 Song of Solomon 8:12 ) ( Matthew 20:1 ) a vineyard is a spot of ground separated from others, and the church and people of God are separated from the rest of the world by electing, redeeming, and calling grace; a vineyard is a place set with various vines, so is the church; there is Christ the true vine, the principal one, which stands in the first place, ( John 15:1 ) and there are particular congregated churches, which belong to the vineyard, the general or catholic church, ( Song of Solomon 2:13 Song of Solomon 2:15 ) and there are particular believers that may be so called, ( Song of Solomon 6:11 ) ( 7:12 ) moreover, sometimes in vineyards other trees are planted besides vines, as barren fig trees, ( Luke 13:6 Luke 13:7 ) and so there are in the visible church of God nominal believers, carnal professors, trees without fruit; there are no true vines but such as are ingrafted and planted in Christ, and who, through union to him, and abiding in him, bring forth fruit; a vineyard is the property of some one person, as this is of Christ, whose it is by his own choice, by his Father's gift, by inheritance, by purchase, as well as it is of his planting, and under his care; vineyards are valuable, pleasant, and profitable, but exposed to beasts of prey, and therefore to be fenced and guarded; all which may be applied to the church of Christ, which shall, in the latter day especially, be very fruitful, and answer to this character given her in this song, a vineyard "of red wine"; the allusion is to such a vineyard, in which vines grow, that bring forth grapes, productive of the best wine, as the red was reckoned in the eastern countries; see ( Genesis 49:12 ) ( Proverbs 23:31 ) and so Jarchi and Kimchi interpret it; this is a vineyard very different from that in ( Isaiah 5:5-7 ) and from the vine of Israel, ( Hosea 10:1 ) the fruit of it, signified by "red wine", may intend the graces of the Spirit, which like grapes, the fruit of the vine, grow in clusters; where one is, all of them are, and come from Christ, the vine, from whom all the fruit of divine grace is found: and which receive their tincture from the blood of Christ, their vigour and their usefulness; and may be said, like wine, to cheer the heart of God and man, ( Judges 9:13 ) grace when in exercise is delightful to God and Christ, ( Song of Solomon 4:9 Song of Solomon 4:10 ) and gives pleasure to other saints, ( Psalms 34:1 Psalms 34:2 ) and as the fruit of the vine must be squeezed ere the liquor can be had, so the graces of the Spirit are tried by afflictive dispensations of Providence, by which the preciousness and usefulness of them are made known; moreover, the fruits of righteousness, or good works, may be also intended, by which the graces of faith and repentance are evidenced, and which, when performed aright, are acceptable to God through Christ, and profitable to men; and for these fruits of grace and good works the church will be famous in the latter day.
F12 Comment. Ebr. p. 622.