And an angel of the Lord came up from Gilgal to Bochim
The Targum calls him a prophet F25; and the Jewish commentators in general interpret it of Phinehas F26; and that a man is meant is given into by others, because he is said to come from a certain place in Canaan, and not from heaven, and spoke in a public congregation, and is not said to disappear; but neither a man nor a created angel is meant, or otherwise he would have spoken in the name of the Lord, and have said, "thus saith the Lord", and not in his own name; ascribing to himself the bringing of the children of Israel out of Egypt, and swearing to them, and making a covenant with them, and threatening what he would do to them because of their sin; wherefore the uncreated Angel, the Angel of the covenant, is meant, who brought Israel out of Egypt, was with them in the wilderness, and introduced them into the land of Canaan, and appeared to Joshua as the Captain of the Lord's host at or near Gilgal, ( Joshua 5:13 Joshua 5:14 ) ; and because he had not appeared since, therefore he is said to come from thence to a place afterwards called Bochim, from what happened at this time:
and said, I made you to go out of Egypt;
that is, obliged Pharaoh king of Egypt to let them go, by inflicting plagues upon him and his people, which made them urgent upon them to depart:
and I have brought you unto the land which I sware unto your fathers;
into the land of Canaan, now for the most part conquered, and divided among them, and in which they were settled:
and I said, I will never break my covenant with you;
if the covenant between them was broken, it should not begin with him, it would be their own fault; all which is mentioned, as so many instances of divine goodness to them, and as so many aggravations of their sins against God.
F25 So Maimonides, Moreh Nevochim, par. 1. c. 15. & par. 2. c. 6.
F26 The Rabbins in Maimon. Moreh Nevochim, par. 2. c. 42.